I6: From dust to planets
The processes leading to the formation and subsequent evolution of terrestrial bodies are currently being lively debated. Whereas there is a general agreement that planets form in a protoplanetary disk, rich in dust and gas, many important questions remain unanswered concerning the earliest phases of planet formation: how did the dust coagulate to form planetary building blocks, and how were the different chemical and isotopic compositions found on planets generated?
Answers and constraints are searched within this LabEx project, by the observation of young protoplanetary disks (VISIR and JWST), through laboratory experiments on meteorites that constrain their formation conditions and timescales, and through numerical simulation of disk evolution.
Later, once a planet or a satellite has formed, a wealth of information on its assemblage and differentiation processes may be explored. Clues to these processes can be obtained by studying the interior structure of a planet, by investigating the composition of its major geochemical reservoirs, and by investigating the planet’s subsequent thermal evolution.
These questions can be addressed by the use of geophysical data (such as through the planet’s gravity field or by seismic measurements) and spacecraft derived topographic maps and images of volcanic landforms. High-pressure laboratory experiments are also crucial for understanding the physics of differentiation, and the partitioning of elements between the crust, mantle, and core.
As a fully interconnected system, a planet’s atmosphere evolves jointly with its surface and interior evolution. This may lead to the formation of dynamical surface structures like dunes, as has been observed throughout the Solar System, which provide a powerful tool to constrain the atmospheric dynamics and surface materials, but whose morphogenesis and link with climatic conditions are still poorly understood. Furthermore, future studies of exoplanets will be able to make use of spectra of their atmospheres, which will inform us of the planet’s surface and geologic evolution.
These three research axes are naturally intertwined, and correspond to three broad time periods in planetary evolution. These are the subject of three ambitious research themes through our UnivEarthS project:
- Formation (theme 1): from dust and gas to planet embryos
- Early evolution (theme 2): Differentiation, interior structure and geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets
- Long term evolution (theme 3): atmosphere-surface-interior interactions
These three research themes are inter-related, and together constrain planetary formation and evolution processes via experiments, and observations (such as from planetary missions). This foster the design of evolution scenarios that are tested using numerical simulations.
This project was launched in January 2014 and is based on two previous projects “Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems” and “The formation of dunes and climate on Titan”.
Detailed description of the different research themes
From dust to planet embryos
The purpose of research theme 1 is to study the earliest evolution of planetary systems by combining three complementary approaches (observation, laboratory measurements and experiments, and numerical simulations) in order to build a global picture of the earliest phases of planetary formation, either in our Solar System or in exo-planetary systems. Our aim is to (1) investigate the mechanism and chronology of dust and planetesimal transport in the protoplanetary disk and (2) constrain processes at the origin of the fist solids and of their transformation (i.e., condensation, irradiation) through the study of variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of the components of primitive meteorites.
Observations of young protoplanetary disks provide crucial information on the large-scale structure and transport of dust and also on the disk thermodynamical structure. Laboratory measurements of meteorites and experimental simulations of some key processes provide important information on the isotopic and chemical composition of dust, then giving constrains on the nebula thermodynamical structure and on transport. Numerical simulation of protoplanetary disks is the ideal tool to test scenarios of protoplanetary disks evolution in order to interpret the data. Our project is to implement in the numerical code isotopic tracers in order to reproduce the observed compositions in meteorites.
For the observational aspects, AIM is involved in the VISIR instrument (Visible and Infrared Spectro imager, at VLT in Chile) and has guaranteed time on the spectro-imager and coronograph (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope that will be launched in 2020. Infrared Images of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars (<107 years) will reveal the earliest phases of planetary formation. These instruments are ideal to constrain the large structure (in the infrared) of young circumstellar disks that are still gas rich, in terms of spatial distribution of dust and temperature as a function of distance. They provide important constrains on the early dynamics of dust in the protoplanetary disk and will help to calibrate the numerical models, as well as give contextual information to interpret the isotopic data. On the observation side two key tasks will be led to answer the following questions:
- What is the radial distribution of dust in the disk as a function of the star’s age?
- How dust sediments to the midplane: do big grains settle in the midlplane and does dust stay in the upper layers?
- What is the influence of turbulence and is it possible to infer the presence of dead zones (zones devoid of turbulence due to low ionization)?
Working on dead-zones is especially promising as there is more and more evidence that dead zones could be regions favorable for the formation of big objects (cm sized) that are necessary today to form planetesimals or even planet embryos through processes of streaming instability or peeble accretion. To this respect, we estimate the coagulation rate of dust in these regions as well as their thermal structure in order to see if isotopic signatures may be expected.
This information will be interpreted in the light of experimental data. Indeed, it is necessary to improve and develop the study of isotopic tracers (short-lived radioactive nuclides; noble gases; equilibrium, kinetic and non-mass dependent stable isotope variations), which could constrain more precisely the timing and the nature of processes such as high-temperature condensation, gas-dust interaction and planetary accretion. These processes, which produced and shaped the first micrometer-size solids, the first planets, as well as the building blocks of the terrestrial planets, can also be simulated experimentally. State of the art analytical techniques combining high spatial resolution and high precision are required to extract all the information from natural samples (meteorites, Moon, Mars, Earth) and from experimental (high-pressure equilibrium, volatilization/condensation, irradiation, adsorption, diffusion) samples. A new platform of experimental cosmochemistry is under construction at IPGP that aims to simulate some key physical processes regarding gas-dust interaction.
Our approach is developed in 5 tasks:
- What do the age and composition of CAIs and chondrules really tell us about the formation of the solar system?
- How can we constrain irradiation processes in the early solar system from analyses of lunar soil grains and meteoritic chondrules and CAIs?
- Why and how did the isotopic composition of major volatiles elements (O, N and C) change so rapidly in the inner accretion disk?
- What is the origin of highly volatile elements in parent bodies from laboratory simulations of gas-dust interactions?
- How and when did the first planetesimals form?
As disk observations and laboratory measurements provide constrains on the transport of solids, it is necessary to provide scenarios of large scale transport relying on the physics of gaseous and dusty protoplanetary disks based on numerical simulations. On this side AIM is leading the development of a large modeling program focusing on the transport of the first solids in the protoplanetary disk and their incorporation into embryos, including turbulent dynamics, radiative effects, and planet-disk interactions. Simple chemical and isotopic fractionation models are included into simulations of turbulent dust transport in order to test different scenarios to interpret isotopic data. Three important modeling tasks are lead:
- Development of a dust transport model in the protoplanetary disk, taking into account turbulence and dust condensation (refractories near the Sun and volatiles near the snow line)
- Coupling of the dust transport model with a radiative transfer code in order to create synthetic images to space observation of disks.
- Development of a protoplanetary disk thermodynamical model in order to constrain the condition of formation of dust, in order to compare with laboratory data.
- Estimation of the irradiation flux of dust in the disk in order to calibrate experiments of fractionation of dust under irradiation.
Beside the earliest phases of planet formation, N-body simulations of embryo transport in the disk (in the frame of the Nice model) is lead to constrain the radial origin of the building blocks that assembled into the modern terrestrial planets. This leads naturally to interactions with research theme 2 that concerns itself with the initial differentiation and interior structure of the terrestrial planets.
Differentiation, interior structure and geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets
The processes that took place during the initial differentiation of the Earth are reasonable well understood, the composition of the major chemical reservoirs (crust, mantle, and core) are relatively well known, and the manner by which internal heat is lost to space via plate tectonics is understood from both observational of modeling perspectives. For the other terrestrial planets, however, our understanding of these processes is considerably more limited, and many first-order questions remain unresolved. For example:
- What is the thickness and composition of the crust of Mercury, the Moon, and Mars?
- At what depths do the major phase transitions occur in the mantles of Mars and Venus, and how do these phase transitions affect mantle convection and plume dynamics?
- What is the size of the metallic core of Mercury, Mars, and the Moon? And what are the abundances of light alloying elements such as sulfur, carbon, and silicon in the liquid portion of their cores?
- Do Mercury, Mars and the Moon possess a solid inner core? And is core crystallization the source of energy that is powering the dynamo-generated magnetic field of Mercury today?
- What was the energy source that powered the early dynamos of Mars and the Moon, and why did their dynamos later shut off?
To address these and other question, this project relies upon a three-pronged approach, making use of geophysical data collected by planetary missions, high-pressure laboratory experiments, and numerical and geophysical modeling. Members of this research axe are currently involved in several NASA and ESA planetary missions at both the co-investigator and principal-investigator level, including NASA’s geophysical missions to the Moon (GRAIL) and Mars (InSight), and ESA’s orbital missions to Mercury (BepiColumbo) and Jupiter (JUICE). Furthermore, members of our project have recently finished the construction of a world-class high-pressure geo-materials laboratory that is currently making its measurements. Together, these datasets offer us a unique perspective to unravel the above listed questions concerning the differentiation, interior evolution, and geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets.
The first two years of the UnivEarthS I1 project funded our analyses of lunar gravitational data acquired during the primary mission of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Results from our group have shown that the crust of the Moon is significantly thinner than once thought, that the crust has been highly fractured by billions of years of impact cratering, and that lateral variations in crustal temperature have had a dramatic influence on the morphology of giant impact basins. During this initial stage of analysis, the UnivEarthS funded a LabEx postdoc, and contributed to the publications of two articles in the journal Science. We now have at our disposal gravitational data from the extended mission, which has a spatial resolution that is two times better than that acquired during the primary mission. Now we aim to study processes that were previously beyond reach, such as the gravitational signature of magnetic anomalies and magmatic intrusions, and the subsurface structure of medium-sized simple and complex impact craters.
At the time the initial UnivEarthS proposal was selected, our group anticipated on providing a seismometer to the Japanese lunar geophysical mission SELENE-2 (with a launch near 2018). Since this time, NASA selected the Martian geophysical mission InSight, to be launched in 2018. Members of our research group are providing, at the principal investigator level, the sole instrument that is above the mission’s “science threshold.” This instrument is the very broad-band seismometer that is being developed at IPGP, and which will make the first seismic measurements ever on the surface of Mars.
Data from this mission will constrain the size of the martian core, determine if a solid inner core exists, determine the thickness of the crust, and search for seismic discontinuities in the mantle (among other objectives). The UnivEarthS project previously agreed to fund a LabEx postdoc and a co-financed thesis student for seismic analysis related to the SELENE-2 mission, and these resources were redirected towards the InSight mission in this revised project.
The proposed experimental approach aims at combining astrophysical models of planetary accretion with geochemical models of planetary differentiation, and cosmochemical constraints provided by meteorites. During the first two years funded by the UnivEarthS LabEx, the young research group (JE1) developed protocols to use the laser-heated diamond anvil cell for studying the geochemical imprint of planetary core formation. We have shown notably in a recent publication in Science that the partitioning of slightly siderophile elements (V and Cr) during core formation imply that accretion of the Earth could have occurred under conditions that were more oxidizing than previously thought. In this way, Earth can accrete from materials as oxidized as the most common meteorites (i.e., ordinary or carbonaceous chondrites) and imply large mixing of proto-planetary materials in the inner solar system. Similarly Ni and Co partitioning shows clearly that the core cannot form at pressures lower than 35 GPa, nor can it form at pressure higher than 65 GPa, bracketing for the first time the depth of the terrestrial magma ocean in the first 50 million years after the birth of the Solar System.
The research we develop will help us constrain and understand the primordial differentiation of terrestrial bodies in the Solar System. We plan to understand the early evolution of Vesta by combining high-precision isotope geochemistry with experimental geochemistry through the study of isotopic fractionation of siderophile and volatile elements (Si, Cr, Ga, Cu, Zn, Sn), as well as moderately siderophile elements (W, Mo). One of the aims is to understand the accretion of the so-called Late Veneer on small planetary embryos. These studies can be applied to understanding the Earth-Moon system after the giant impact through the comparison between Apollo samples and experimental charges, once again with a special focus on volatile elements and their isotropic fractionation. We have access to a very large collection of SNCs and have plans to propose refined models of Martian differentiation, to understand the processes that can occur in a very short timescale and compare it with the relatively long timescale of terrestrial accretion. These studies all require a savvy mix of experiments and cosmochemical observation and access to “rare” samples, and represent a perfect integration of the experimentalists in this proposal with the cosmochemists.
Planetary interfaces: atmosphere-surface-interior interactions
The atmosphere of planetary body with no plate tectonics mainly forms and survives through the release of volatiles from the mantle (or ice shell) by volcanism (or cryovolcanism) and the persistence of surface reservoirs for those volatiles. The presence and survival of an atmosphere provides in that way a window into the evolution of the volcanic activity, the atmospheric dynamics and composition (climate), and the geology and geodynamics of a planetary body.
The aim of research theme 3 is thus to study the strong coupling between planetary bodies’ interiors, surfaces and atmospheres, constraining their concomitant formation and evolution throughout the age of the Solar System. This axis combines the joint characterization of the solid and fluid envelops of terrestrial planets, satellites and exoplanets following a complete comparative planetology approach (with Mars, Titan and “exoplanets with an atmosphere” as archetypes), in a multi-disciplinary way. This project includes analysis of planetary mission data, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments.
Atmosphere/interior/habitability coupling on Mars.
The INSIGHT mission, planned to land on Mars in 2018, will provide the first constraints on martian mantle discontinuities and better constrain the thickness and composition of the crust composition. Constraints on the mantle size, if coupled with better constraints on the thermodynamical properties of the mantle phase transitions, can be used for better modeling and understanding of early martian mantle dynamics, mantle convection, rates of crustal production, and evolution in basaltic composition. Furthermore, constraints on the crust and mantle melt density can be used to estimate the amount of melt that is stored within or below the crust relative to the amount of melt that reaches the surface and hence releases its volatiles into the atmosphere. With the new data provided by the INSIGHT mission, we thus aim to constrain the coupled interior/atmosphere co-evolution of Mars and its impact on the primitive habitability of the planet.
INSIGHT will also provide the first coupled geophysical and meteorological observatory on Mars. We expect the mission to detect the micro-seismic noise generated by the interaction of wind with the surface. This will be used to monitor and constraint the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and to constrainthe surface saltation processes.
Dune physics and the link with planetary climate.
During the last years, new collaborations have been established with the Chinese Academy of Science to develop a novel type of field experiment designed to examine the physics of sand dunes within their natural environment using controlled initial and boundary conditions. This so-called landscape-scale experiment is a new and unique concept that is particularly well-suited for validation and quantification purposes. Given the extreme conditions encountered in arid deserts and the time scales associated with the development of bedforms, in-situ experiments on aeolian sand dunes have to combine logistics facilities with long term measurements.
By successfully meeting these challenges in China, thanks to the local climate and the field expertise of Chinese scientists, we were able to obtain new experimental evidences for the formation of dunes and their alignment in multimodal wind regimes. From this, we have a unique set of data to investigate dune morphodynamics, which is intended to be put in close relation to dune morphodynamics and climate on Earth and other planetary bodies were dunes have been observed (Mars and Saturn largest moon Titan).
POSITION NAME SURNAME LABORATORY NAME GRADE, EMPLOYER WP leader
Theme 3 leader
S. Rodriguez AIM/IPGP Assistant Professor, Univ Paris Diderot WP co-leader
Theme 1 leader
S. Charnoz AIM/IPGP Professor, Univ Paris Diderot WP co-leader
Theme 2 leader
IPGP/ENS Lyon Assistant Professor, Univ Paris Diderot (to become Professor, ENS Lyon) WP member M. Moreira IPGP Professor, Univ Paris Diderot WP member F. Moynier IPGP Professor, Univ Paris Diderot WP member M. Chaussidon IPGP DR, CNRS WP member J. Siebert IPGP Assistant Professor, Univ Paris Diderot WP member P. Lognonné IPGP Professor, Univ Paris Diderot WP member R. A. Garcia AIM Research Engineer CEA WP member S. Matis AIM Research Engineer CEA WP member M. Drilleau IPGP IR, CNRS WP member E. Clévédé IPGP CR, CNRS WP member C. Narteau IPGP Assistant Professor, Univ Paris Diderot WP member A. Lucas AIM/IPGP Postdoc/CR CNRS WP member Francesco Pignatale IPGP Post-doc WP member Guillaume Avice IPGP WP member Deng Zhengbin IPGP PhD student WP member Edith Kubik IPGP PhD student WP member Laetticia Allibert IPGP PhD student WP member Ke Zhu IPGP PhD student WP member Sandrine Peron IPGP PhD student WP member M. Thiriet IPGP Labex PhD student, C. Michaut WP member F. Karakostas IPGP Labex PhD student, P. Lognonné WP member M. Saade IPGP Labex postdoc
Theme 1 – FORMATION “from dust and gas to planet embryos” – major results are in bold:
Research conducted in Theme 1 focus mainly on the origin and evolution of the early solar system, including the formation and differentiation of terrestrial planets and their satellites, as well as the study of exo-planetary systems as comparative objects. The specificity of our approach is to couple geochemistry, petrology, cosmochemistry and astrophysics, which is an approach that is almost unique in the world.
The laser ablation system that was acquired thanks to Labex funding is now running in routine. Following our first paper (Chaussidon et al.2017), former graduate student Zhengbin Deng has shown that we can track the partial evaporation of Mg from melted chondrules and combine that with radiogenic 26Mg excess to evaluate the age of the heating events. With post-doc Paulo Sossi we have developed the first V isotopic measurements in CAIs and found the first definitive proves of early solar system irradiation (Sossi et al. 2017). Modelling of the production rate of the two isotopes demonstrates that the dust was exposed to cosmic rays produced by the young Sun for not more than 300 years at a distance of <0.1 AU. This requires that the refractory dust was irradiated close to the Sun when it was a class 0 – 1 protostar, before they were transported to larger heliocentric distances and incorporated into chondritic meteorites.
As stressed in our previous report we have now finished the first set of evaporation experiments at varying fO2 and T to develop a new scale of volatility applicable to planetary environments. We have developed a full set of thermodynamic modeling (Sossi, et al. in revisions). We have also extended this work to isotopic ratio to determine the isotopic behavior of Zn and Cu during evaporation which we use to calibrate the volatile loss from planetary objects. This will be submitted soon. Based on high precision Cr stable isotopic measurements, we have shown that the Moon experienced its volatile loss under relatively low temperature (<1800K), under an equilibrium regime, which must be associated to the stage of magma ocean degassing (Sossi et al. 2018). A similar approach was used with graduate student Ke Zhu to study the volatile loss from the asteroid 4-Vesta (Zhu et al. submitted). Both Rb (Pringle and Moynier 2017), Ga (Kato and Moynier, 2017, Kato and Moynier, 2017) are isotopically fractionated in the Moon compared to the Earth and modeling these data together with previous results on Zn (Dalhiwal et al., 2017, Day et al. 2017) allows us arguing that the volatile loss must have occurred during the crystallization of the magma ocean. We also have shown that the Moon was isotopically identical to the Earth for all the isotopes of Cr and Fe. These results are very important with regards to the mode of formation of the Moon and for the material at the origin of the giant impact that must be very similar to the one of the Earth (Sossi and Moynier 2017 and Mougel et al. 2017). We have finally developed the first high precision Sn isotopic measurements by double spike method (Creech, et al. 2017) and evaluate the fractionation during igneous processes and the Earth’s mantle composition (Badullovich et al. 2017). This work will be pursued in lunar rocks. With graduate student Brandon Mahan, we have further studied the effect of metal/silicate partitioning on the isotopic composition of certain elements (Zn, Cu, Sn, Ga). This approach is central to 1) understand the composition of the core, 2) evaluate the isotopic composition of the bulk Earth for those elements and therefore evaluate the composition of the Earth’s building blocks as well as study the effect of other processes. In particular we have estimated the change in redox state of the chondrule forming region (Mahan et al. 2018). In addition, we had the chance to work on the oldest martian meteorite, Black beauty on which individual zircons were dated, which show that the formation of the martian crust occurred much earlier than previously thought (Bouvier et al. 2018).
Furthermore, we performed experiments at the direct conditions of core formation in a deep magma ocean (P> 40 GPa and T> 3000 K) to constrain the distribution of Mn and Na between the core and mantle. The results show that the Earth experienced limited post-nebular volatilization and that the Earth underwent a style of volatile depletion similar to that experienced by chondrites (i.e. incomplete condensation in the solar nebula). (Siebert, et al. 2018). In addition, we have performed laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments and measured K and U solubility in molten iron alloy at core formation conditions. We find that a maximum of 26 ppm K and 3.5 ppb U can be dissolved in the Earth’s core, producing up to 7.5 TW of heat 4.5 Gyr ago. While higher than previous estimates, this is insufficient to power an early geodynamo, appreciably reduce initial core temperature, or significantly alter its thermal evolution and the (apparently young) age of the inner core (Blanchard et al. 2017). Further work from Mahan, using results from laser heated diamond anvil cell experiments at extreme P-T conditions, have shown that the budget of volatile elements of the mantle is dominated by late accreting components (Mahan et al. 2016, 2018a, 2018b).
We have studied these last years a scenario in which the solar wind irradiation process is a possible source of the light volatile elements (He, H, Ne) on planetary precursors (Peron et al., 2017, 2018; Jaupart et al., 2017). The approach was double: precise measurements of the noble gases in terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples thanks to new analytical protocols (laser ablation for instance), and modeling of gas capture around planetary embryos. Moreover, we have also recently worked on the chondritic contribution for terrestrial heavy noble gases (e.g. xenon: Moreira et al., 2018; Moreira et al., in prep; Peron and Moreira, 2018-in press). This former was quantified thanks to a new analytical protocol for xenon isotopes to obtained never-obtained precision on mantle-derived samples. We have shown that a chondritic xenon (different from Earth’s atmosphere) is present in the mantle, and that recycling of atmospheric xenon into the mantle has almost masked this primordial component, with an onset of the subduction that cannot be older than 3Ga (Péron and Moreira, 2018).
Concerning the origin of planets and satellites in the Solar System, we have continued our effort on the origin of Phobos and Deimos, in the preparation of the forthcoming MMX mission (Phobos sample return, led by JAXA) in order to better estimate the chemistry and the volatile content of Phobos, in the case it was created by a giant impact. We published two papers on that topic (Pignatale et al., 2018, Hyodo et al.2018). The work is complementary to the one on meteorites samples because it prepares the MMX mission, in which we hope to get involved in the forthcoming years. In addition to this, we have published a work on the origin of exoplanets invoking an original formation scenario inspired from the origin of Saturn’s moons (Van Hielsout et al., 2018).
Theme 2 – EARLY EVOLUTION “geology and internal structure of Solar System bodies”: The internal structure of Mars and the Insight mission – major results are in bold:
Mars’s crustal dichotomy in altitude and aspect between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands probably extends at depth potentially implying north/south differences in crustal thickness, composition and thermal structure.
The use of 1-D parameterized thermal models is required to explore large ranges of crustal properties. By comparing 1-D and 3-D thermal models in Monte Carlo simulations, we have shown that one specific scaling law relating the heat flux out of the convecting mantle to the rheological temperature scale and mantle thickness can suitably describe the entire thermal evolution of Mars despite the evolution with time of the heating mode (Thiriet et al, in revision for PEPI).
Using this scaling law in 1-D thermal models with two different hemispheres, we then search for the northern and southern crustal properties that could explain the observations of recent volcanism and elastic lithosphere thickness estimates. Our results show that 55–65% of the bulk radioelement content are in the crust, and most of it (43-51 %) in the southern one. The southern crust could be less dense than the northern one (up to 480 kg/m3) and might contain a non-negligible proportion of felsic rocks. We predict present-day north/south surface heat flux of 17.1-19.5 mW/m2 and 24.8-26.5 mW/m2, respectively, and a large difference in lithospheric temperatures between the two hemispheres (170-304 K in the shallow mantle).
In the context of the InSight mission, we have finally investigated the effect of our thermal models on surface wave propagation. We find that surface wave velocities mostly depend on the crustal thickness and, to a lesser extent, on the crustal composition and lithospheric temperatures. Along great circles the dispersion curves are influenced by the properties of the two hemispheres but probably mostly by those of the southern one that covers a wider area.
In the frame of the thesis of F.Karakostas, which was defended in september 2018, a complete analysis of the impact of Chelyabinsk was performed leading to new estimation of the seismic moment of this event, and estimation of the frequency of detectable impacts on mars has been proposed (Karakostas et al., 2018, Daubard et al, 2018). IPGP is co-leading the Impact Working group of InSight, together with JPL, and we implemented together with CNES automated detection algorythm for enabling the detection of Impacts on Mars not only with SEIS but also from orbiters, which will allow precise crustal inversion with a methodology already tested for the Moon (Drilleau et al., in preparation). In addition, F.Karakoastas contributed to an additionnal paper on 6 axis seismology for inSight, lead by L.Fayon, who was supported by IDEX (Fayon et al., 2018).
The modeling of synthetics seismograms for 3D Martian structure, performed by Maria Saade have now been benchmarked and both the rotation and ellipticity of Mars has been integrated. The ongoing step is the integration of the lateral variation of both the surface and moho depth. We expect to publish these modeling results in an inSight paper, which submission is targeted for the end of the year.
Theme 3 – LONG-TERM EVOLUTION “atmosphere-surface-interior interactions” – major results are in bold:
Since the beginning of the project, our aim is to study extraterrestrial deserts and dunes in order to understand the complex interplay between planetary climates and surface sediment. Through the study of the dynamics of linear dunes, with the help of relevant terrestrial analogues, we were able to better assess the properties of atmospheric dynamics and regolith of Titan and Mars.
After flattening an experimental dune field across 16 hectares of the experimental site, we have measured winds and topography from March 2008 to October 2011 to reveal the development of regular dune patterns with a constant wavelength. On a seasonal timescale, we have shown that individual dunes propagate in different directions according to the prevailing wind. We have found that the orientation of dune crests is controlled by the combination of the normal contributions of the two dominant winds, with respect to their relative strengths and directions, such that crests form an oblique angle of 50 degrees with the resultant sand flux. Thus, we have obtained the first experimental evidence for the formation of oblique aeolian dunes [Ping et al., 2014].
Over the last year, thanks to the beginning of a new PhD, we have continued to explore the physics of dune using the landscape-scale experiment in the Tengger desert (Zhongwei, Inner Mongolia, China). Such an experimental work is a new concept in geomorphology that is particularly well suited for validation and quantification purposes. Three experiments are actually running :
(1) Evaluation of the growth rate of the characteristic wavelength for the formation of dunes. Using regular topographic measurement of an experimental plot flatten in April 2014, we measure regularly the topography, especially over short time. Thus, we hope to characterize an undulation with a constant wavelength and an exponentially growing amplitude. The associated growth rate can then be related to wind data and the associated sand transport.
(2) Evolution of both the upwind velocity shift and speed-up during dune growth. We measure the near-surface wind velocity profile over consecutive low dunes during their growth. Thus, we not only measure the upwind-shift velocity at the various crests, but also in the interdune areas where the minimum of topography are observed. In addition, as the dune pattern is growing, we repeat these measurements over time. Because, the dune aspect ratio is likely to increase, we may have a rare experimental evidence of the evolution of the upwind-shift velocity with respect to dune shape.
(3) Characterization of two modes of dune orientation. In October 2013 and April 2014, we have constructed two experimental plots with different initial and boundary conditions to study the effect of sand availability on dune alignment. As for the development of the bed instability [Ping et al., 2014], one experimental plot is an erodible rectangular sand bed (60×100 meters) with open boundary conditions. The other is an isolated non-erodible bed of the same size on the top of which we have built two isolated conical sand pile. In the first case, we already observed that dunes grow in height from the available sedimentary resource in the inter-dune area, as expected from the theory [Courrech du Pont et al., 2014]. In the second case dunes extend away from a sand source by developing a finger-like structure on the non-erodible ground. These two dune growth mechanisms are quantified using regular measurements of the topography and of the sand flux at the crest.
We also investigate the impact of granular mixture on dune morphodynamics. For this purpose, we have developped a new version of the model in which the sedimentary state is decomposed into substates according to grain size. In this case, the model remains the same but we have two grain sizes with different threshold shear stress values. Then, starting with a mixture of two populations of fine and coarse grains, transport naturally generate spatial heterogeneities in threshold shear stress according to the local configuration of the bed and the motions of individual particle. As a result, we have shown that size-segregation mechanism and the development of an armored layer may not only change the overall transport rate but also the shape of the dunefield [Gao et al., 2016].
Regarding extraterrrestrial dunes, we continued our effort to export our knowledge of terrestrial dune and desert dynamics to constrain the nature, origin and evolution of Mars and Titan dunes, and to better characterize Mars and Titan climates and soils.
We report, for the first time the detection of dust storm events of Titan (Rodriguez et al., Nature Geoscience, 2018). Occurrences of dust storms, above dune fields, provide for the very first time a direct evidence of the possible actual activity of the underlying dune fields, under current atmospheric conditions (in terms of surface humidity and wind strength).
In the course of the year 2018, using microwave and infrared data from Cassini, we studied in details the composition and textural properties of the sediment constituting Titan’s immense sand seas (including the dune and interdune areas), still largely unknown. Textural and chemical properties, as well as the morphology of dunes observed in the equatorial regions of Titan may reflect present and past climatic conditions. Understanding the morphodynamics and physico-chemical properties of Titan’s dunes is therefore essential for a better comprehension of the climatic and geological history of the largest moon of Saturn. We quantitatively derived surface properties (texture, composition) from the modeling of the microwave backscattered signal and Monte-Carlo inversion of the despeckled Cassini/SAR images over Titan’s three largest sand seas: Belet, Shangri-La and Fensal (Lucas et al., under review in JGR). We present the first backscatter functions extracted from despeckled SAR data that cover such a large range in incidences since the beginning of the Cassini mission. We show that dunes and interdunes have significantly different physical properties. Dunes are globally more microwave absorbent than interdunes, which are compatible with organic sand. The interdunes present multi-scale roughness with a higher relative permittivity than the dunes, which is consistent with the presence of a shallow layer of organic sediment of larger grain size (therefore non-mobilisable by winds) over an icy bedrock. Additionally, potential secondary bedforms, such as ripples and avalanches, may have been detected, which would be evidence for currently active dunes and sediment transport. Based on local sediment composition and texture assessments, our present study complements our previous work that was based on more general dune morphological considerations (Lucas et al., GRL, 2014; Charnay et al., Nature Geoscience, 2015), and consolidates our conclusion that Titan’s dunes evolve by elongation with crests aligned mainly in the resultant drift direction, under the actual wind regime.
We also used infrared spectro-imagery from the Cassini spacecraft to investigate the puzzling nature and origin of Titan sediment that ends up in the sand seas and builds the dunes (Brossier et al., JGR, 2018). During the past thirteen years, infrared observations from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini provided significant hints concerning the investigation of the spectral and geological diversity of Titan’s surface. The analysis of the infrared signature of spectral units enables constraining the surface composition, which is crucial for understanding possible interactions between Titan’s interior, surface and atmosphere. We investigated in particular a selection of areas in the equatorial regions, imaged by Cassini VIMS and RADAR instruments. Those areas exhibit an apparent transition between three distinct infrared units. By applying an updated radiative transfer model, we extracted the surface albedo of IR-units identified in these regions. Then, we compare them with synthetic spectra of mixtures of two expected components of Titan’s surface, namely water ice and analogues to solid organics. This allowed us to reconnect the derived composition and grain size information to the geomorphology observed in the RADAR/SAR data. Hence, we interpret IR-bright terrains as hills and plains coated by organic material and incised by fluvial networks. The erosion products are transported downstream to a distinct spectral unit adjoining the IR-bright terrains. These areas, enriched in water ice, are most likely outwash plains hosting icy and organic debris created from fluvial erosion. Farther away from the IR-bright terrains, downward of the outwash plains, are finally found the infrared units where dune material dominate, primarily made of organics with varied grain sizes ranging from dust- to sand-sized particles. Those lowlands are where dunes systematically form and accumulate. The material that builds the dunes is thus thought to result from the erosion and transport of organic material from the hills down to the plains, in a similar way as what is observed in the terrestrial oued/reg/erg transition in arid areas.
Dunes provide unique information about wind regimes on planetary bodies where there is no direct meteorological data. At the eastern margin of Olympia Undae on Mars, we measured sediment cover and dune orientation from satellite imagery using the high contrast between the dune material and the substratum (Fernandez-Cascales et al., EPSL, 2018). These data provide the first quantification of relationship between sediment availability and dune orientation. Abrupt and smooth dune reorientations are associated with inward and outward dynamics of dunes approaching and ejecting from major sedimentary bodies, respectively. These reorientation patterns along sediment transport pathways are interpreted using a new generation dune model based on the coexistence of two dune growth mechanisms. This model also permitted solving of the inverse problem of predicting the wind regime from dune orientation. For bidirectional wind regimes, solutions of this inverse problem show substantial variations in the distributions of sediment flux orientation, which can be attributed to changes in albedo at the boundaries of major dune fields. We concluded that relationships between sediment cover and dune orientation can now be used to constrain wind regime and dune field development on Mars and other planetary surfaces. A more global study of wind patterns on Mars, to be compared to the predictions of Global and Mesoscale Circulation Models, is currently under investigation.
Finally, with the aim to take advantage of this LabEx project to collaborate more closely with the members of the present WP working on a different THEME, we very recently developed experiments and projects using the InSight instrumentation (robotic arm, cameras and meteorological package) with THEME 2 investigators to study the properties of the Martian regolith and its response to wind forcing. We also intend to monitor impact craters nearby the landing site of InSight and help the interpretation of the related seismic detection in terms of regolith and crustal material properties. All these investigations are coordinated with colleagues of the THEME 2 and we officially participate to the science activities of the InSight Science Operation, Surface and Atmospheric Working Groups (Golombek et al., SSR, 2018; Spiga et al., SSR, 2018; Daubar et al., in review in SSR).
Baillié K., Charnoz S., Time Evolution of a Viscous Protoplanetary Disk with a Free Geometry: Toward a More Self-consistent Picture. 2014. Apj 786, id.35
Tajeddine R; N., Rambaux; Lainey, , S. charnoz and 3 co-authors. Constraints on Mimas’ interior from Cassini ISS libration measurements. Accepted in SCIENCE (publication in Nov. 2014)
S. Charnoz, J. Aléon, N. Chaumard, E. Tailliffet. Formation of CAI by coagulation and fragmentation. Submitted to Icarus. Moderate revisions required.
Baillié K., Charnoz S., Pantin E. Evolution of front regions and planet traps in an evolving protoplanetary disk. Submitted to A&A
Charnoz S. , Michaut C. Dynamical and thermodynamical evolution of the protoluar disk. Submitted to Icarus.
Chaussidon M. & Liu M.C. Early Solar System processes: from nebular gas to the precursors of the Earth. AGU Monograph “Early Earth”
Furi E, Chaussidon M. & Marty B. (accepté) Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a CV3 CAI. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta
Luu T.-H., Young E.D. , Gounelle M. & Chaussidon M. (en révision) A short time interval for condensation of high temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.
Mishra R. & Chaussidon M. (2014) Fossil records of high level of 60Fe in chondrules from unequilibrated chondrites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 398, 90-100.
Moreira M., Charnoz S. . The origin of the neon isotopes in chondrites and Earth, Submitted to EPSL
Paul S. Savage, Heng Chen, Igor S. Puchtel, Gregory Shofner, J. Siebert, J. Badro, F. Moynier. Under review, Nature Geoscience.
Moynier, F. et Fegley, B. The Earth’s building blocks. AGU monograph, accepted with revisions.
Chen, H., Moynier, F., Humayun, M., Bishop, MC, Williams, J. Cosmogenic effects on Cu isotopes in IVB iron meteorites: Implications for the Hf-W chronometry. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta. Accepted with revisions
Chavrit, D., Moreira, M. Moynier, F. Unusual neon isotopic composition in Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks: fluorine bearing minerals or impact event? Precambrian Research. In review.
Siebert, J., P. Sossi, I. Blanchard, B. Mahan, J. Badro, F. Moynier. Chondritic Mn/Na ratio and limited post-nebular volatile loss of the Earth. In revision to EPSL.
$Sossi, P., Nebel, O., O’Neill, H., Moynier, F. Progressive Accretion of Earth’s Moderately Volatile Elements revealed by Zn Isotopes. In review to Chem. Geol.
*Paniello, R., Moynier F., Zn isotopes composition of ordinary chondrites. In revision to GCA.
Moynier, F., Fike, D., Menard,G., Fisher, W., Grotzigner, J., Agranier, A. Fe isotopes and the redox state of the ediacaran ocean. Accepted with revision to Geology.
Charbonnier, Moynier, Bouchez, Ba isotope geochemistry. In review to Science Bulletin.
Mougel, B., Moynier F., Goepel, C. Chromium isotopic homogeneity between the Earth, the Moon and enstatite chondrites. 2017 EPSL. In press.
Badullovich, Moynier, *Creech, *Sossi and Teng. Tin stable isotopic fractionation during igneous differentiation. 2017 GPL. In press.
Mahan, B., Moynier, F., Beck, P., Pringle, E., Siebert, J. Thermal history and volatile loss in carbonaceous chondrites: insights from water content, Zn isotopes and volatile element abundances. 2018, 19-35. GCA.
Kato and Moynier. 2017. Gallium isotopic evidence for the origin of moderately volatile elements in planetary materials. 479, 430-439. EPSL.
Dhaliwal, JK, Day, J., Moynier, F. Volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases. 2017. Icarus. In press.
Bollard, J. Connelly, J., Whitehouse, M, Pringle EA, Bonal, L., Jorgensen, J. Nordlung, A., Moynier, F., Bizzarro, M. 2017 Early formation of planetary building blocks inferred from Pb ages of chondrules.. Science. Advances. 3 (8), e1700407
Day, J., Moynier, F., Shearer, C. 2017. Last stage magmatic degasing from a volatile depleted Moon. PNAS. 10.1073/pnas.1708236114
*Kato and Moynier. 2017 Gallium isotopic evidence for a volatile depleted Moon. Science Advances. 3 (7), e1700571
Rodovská, Z., Magna, T., Zak, K., Kato, C., Savage, P., Moynier, F., Skala, R., Jezek, J. 2017. Implications for behavior of volatile elements during impacts – zinc and copper systematics in sediments from the Ries impact structure and central European tektites. MAPS. In press.
Magna, T. Zak, K., Pack, A., Moynier, F. Mougel, B., Skala R., Jonasova S., Mizera J., Randa, Z. 2017 Zhamanshin astrobleme : O-Cr evidence for a carbonaceous chondrite impactor. Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-00192-5
*Pringle, E., Moynier, F. 2017 Rubidium isotopic composition of the Earth, meteorites, and the Moon: evidence for the origin of volatile loss during planetary accretion. EPSL. 473, 62-70
$Creech, J., Moynier, F. Bizzarro, M. Tracing metal/silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and in the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes. GCA. 216, 28-41.
$Sossi, P., Moynier, F. 2017 Chemical and isotopic kinship of iron in the Earth and Moon deduced from the lunar Mg-Suite. EPSL. 471, 125-135
*Amsellem, E., Moynier, F., Pringle, E., Bouvier, A., Day, J. 2017 Testing the chondrule-rich accretion theory with Ca isotopes. EPSL. 469, 75-83
*Pringle, E.A., Moynier, F., Beck, P., Paniello, R., Hezel, D.C., 2017. The origin of volatile element depletion in early solar system material: clues from Zn isotopes in chondrules. Earth Plan. Sci. Lett, EPSL, 468, 62-71$Creech, J., Moynier, F., *Badullovich, N. 2017. Tin stable isotope analysis of geological materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS. Chem. Geol. 457, 61-67.
Moynier, F., Shaw, A., LeBorgne M. 2017. Zinc isotopic behavior during Alzheimer’s disease. GPL. 3, 142-150.
Moynier, F. Fujii, T. Ab initio calcualtion of Ca isotopic fractionation between molecules relevant to biology, geology and medical sciences. 2017, Scientific Reports. 7: 44255.
Day, J., Moynier, F. Meshik, A., Pradivtseva, O., Petit, D. Evaporative fractionation of volatile elements during the first nuclear detonation. 2017 Science Advances. Vol. 3, no. 2, e1602668 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602668
$Mougel, B. Moynier, F. Gopel, C., Koeberl, C. Chromium isotope evidence in impact ejecta for the nature of the impactors of the Sudbury and Vredefort structures. 2017 EPSL. 460, 105-11.
*Kato, C., Moynier, F., Foriel, J., Teng, FZ, Puchtel, I. The gallium isotopic composition of the bulk silicate Earth. 2017 Chem Geol. 448, 164-172
Sossi, P. Moynier, F. Chaussidon, M., Villeuneuve, J., *Kato, C., Gounelle, M. Early Solar System Irridiation revealed by correlated vanadium and beryllium isotope variations in meteorites. 2017 Nature Astronomy. 10.1038/s41550-017-0055
$Creech, J.Baker, J., Handler, M., Lorand, JP, Storey, M. Moynier, F. Bizzarro, M., Late accretion history of terrestrial planets inferred from stable isotopes. GPL. 2017. 2, 94-104
Moynier, F. The isotope geochemistry of Zn. Encyclopedia of geochemistry.
Chaussidon, M. *Deng, ZB, Villeneuve, J., Moureau, J., Richter, F., Moynier, F. In situ analysis of non-traditional isotopes by SIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS: key aspects and the example of Mg isotopes in olivines and silicate glasses. 2017 Review in mineralogy and geochemistry. Vol. 82. 127-164
*Mahan, B., Siebert, J., Pringle, E., Moynier, F. Elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation of Zn between metal and silicate and geochemical estimation of the S content of the Earth’s core. 2017 GCA, 196, 252-270
Moynier, F., Vance, D., Fujii, T., Savage, P. The Cu and Zn isotope geochemistry. Review in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 2017. Vol. 82, 543-600
Morard, D. Andrault, D. Antonangeli, Y. Nakajima, A.L. Auzende, E. Boulard, S. Cervera, A. Clark, O.T. Lord, J. Siebert, V. Svitlyk, G. Garbarino, M. Mezouar. Structure and density of Fe-C liquid alloys under high pressure. In press. GRL
Blanchard, J. Siebert, J. Badro. 2017. The solubility of heat-producing elements in Earth’s core. GPL, 5, 1-5.
Morard, D. Andrault, D. Antonangeli, Y. Nakajima, A.L. Auzende, E. Boulard, S. Cervera, A. Clark, Lord, J. Siebert, V. Svitlyk, G. Garbarino, M. Mezouar 2017. Fe-FeO and Fe-Fe3C melting relations at Earth’s Core-Mantle Boundary conditions: implications for a volatile-rich or oxygen-rich core. EPSL, 473, 94-103.
Suer, J. Siebert, L. Rémusat, N. Menguy, G. Fiquet 2017. A sulfur-poor terrestrial core inferred from metal-silicate partitioning experiments. EPSL, 469, 84-97.
Jaupart, E., Charnoz, S. and Moreira, M. 2017 Primordial atmosphere incorporation in planetary embryos and the origin of terrestrial Neon. Icarus 293, 199-205.
Peron, S., Moreira, M., Putlitz, B. and Kurz, M.D. 2017 Solar wind implantation supplied light volatiles during the first stage of Earth accretion. GPL 3, doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1718.
Charnoz S., Canup R.M., Crida A., Dones L. 2018. The Origin of Planetary Ring System. To appear in “Planetary Rings 2”, C.D. Murray and M. Tiscareno Eds., Univ. Of Arizona Press
Mousis O., Charnoz S., et al., 2017. Scientific rationale for Uranus and Neptune in situ explorations. Submitted to PSS
*Hyodo R., Genda H., Charnoz S., Rosenblatt P., 2017. On the Impact Origin of Phobos and Deimos. I. Thermodynamic and Physical Aspects. ApJ 845, id. 125
*Hyodo R., Charnoz S., Ohtsuki K., Genda H., 2017. Ring formation around giant planets by tidal disruption of a single passing large Kuiper belt object. Icarus 282, 195-213
*Hyodo R., Charnoz S., 2018. Dynamical Evolution of the debris disk after sa satellite catastrophic disruption around Saturn. Astron. J., 154, Id.34
*Hyodo R., Charnoz S., Genda H., Ohstsuki K., 2016.Formation of Centaurs’ Rings through Their Partial Tidal Disruption during Planetary Encounters. ApJL 828, id L8
Amsellem*, E., Moynier, F., Day,J., Teng, FZ, Puchtel., I. Stable Sr isotopic composition of OIB, MORB, komatiites and Kilauea iki lava lake samples. 2018 Chem. Geol 483, 595-602
Bekaert D., Derenne S., Tissandier L., Marocchi Y., Charnoz S., Anquetil C., Marty B. 2018. High-temperature Ionization-induced Synthesis of Biologically Relevant Molecules in the Protosolar Nebula. ApJ 859, Id.142
Bouvier, L., et al. Evidence for extremely rapid magma ocean crystallization and crust formation on Mars. 2018 Nature. 558, 586.
Busigny, Chen, Philippot, Moynier, Insight into hydrothermal and subduction processes from copper and nitrogen isotopes in oceanic metagabbros. 2018 EPSL 498, 44-54
Charbonnier, Q., Moynier, F., Bouchez, J., Ba isotope geochemistry.2018 Science Bulletin, 63, 385-394
Day, J., Tait, K., Udry, A., Moynier, F., Liu, Y., Neal, C. Rejuvenated martian magmatism from plume metasomatized mantle. 2018 Nature Communication. Accepted.
Deng*, ZB, Moynier, F., Sossi*, P., Van Zuilen, K., Chaussidon, M. Lack of resolvable titanium isotopic variations in bulk chondrites. 2018 GCA. 239, 409-419
Hyodo* R., Genda H., Charnoz S., Pignatale F., Rosenblatt P., 2018. On the Impact Origin of Phobos and Deimos. IV. Volatile Depletion. ApJ 860, Id.50
Inglis*, E., Moynier, F., Creech*, J. High precision Zirconium stable isotope measurements of geological reference materials as measured by double-spike MC-ICPMS, Chemical Geology 2018
Livermore, B., Connelly, J., Moynier, F., Bizzarro, M. Evaluating the robustness of a consensus 238U/235U for U-Pb geochronology 2018 GCA. 237, 171-183
Mahan*, B., Moynier, F, Siebert, J., Gueguen, B., Agranier, A., Pringle, E., Bollard, J., Conelly, J., Bizzarro, M. 2018 PNAS Volatile element evolution in chondrules through time.
Mahan*, B., Moynier, F., Jorgensen, A., Siebert, J. 2018 Examining the homeostatic distribution of metals and Zn isotopes in Göttingen minipigs Metallomics 10, 1264-1281
Mahan*, B., Siebert, J., Blanchard, I., Badro, J., Kubik, E., Sossi, P., Moynier, F. Investigating Earth’s Formation History Through Copper and Sulfur Metal‐Silicate Partitioning During Core‐Mantle Differentiation. 2018 JGR.
Mahan*, B., Siebert, J., Blanchard, I., Badro, J., Moynier, F. Constraining compositional proxies for the Earth’s accretion and core formation through high pressure and high temperature Zn and S metal silicate partitioning. 2018 GCA, 235, 21-40
Moreira, M., Rouchon, V., Muller, E. and Noirez, S. (2018) The xenon isotopic signature of the mantle beneath Massif Central. Geocemical Perspectives Letters 6, 28-32.
Mougel*, B., Moynier F., Goepl, C. Chromium isotopic homogeneity between the Earth, the Moon and enstatite chondrites. 2018 EPSL. 481, 1-8
Péron* S. and M. Moreira, Onset of volatile recycling into the mantle determined by xenon anomalies, in press, Geochemical Perspective letters, October 2018
Peron*, S., Moreira , M. and Agranier, A. (2018) Origin of Light Noble Gases (He, Ne, Ar) on Earth, a Review. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 19.
Pignatale* F.C., Charnoz S., Rosenblatt P., Hyodo R., Nakamura T., Genda H., 2018. On the Impact Origin of Phobos and Deimos. III. Resulting Composition from Different Impactors. ApJ 853, id.118
Roubinet*, C., M. Moreira (2018), Atmospheric noble gases in Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts: Identification of atmospheric contamination processes, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 222, 253-268
Siebert, J., Sossi*, P., Blanchard, I., Mahan, B., Badro, J., Moynier, F. Chondritic Mn/Na ratio and limited post-nebular volatile loss to the Earth. 2018 EPSL. 485, 130-139
Sossi*, P., Moynier, F., Van Zuilen,K. 2018 PNAS, Volatile loss following cooling and accretion of the Moon revealed by chromium isotopes
Sossi*, P., Nebel, O., O’Neill, H., Moynier, F. Progressive Accretion of Earth’s Moderately Volatile Elements revealed by Zn Isotopes. 2018 Chem. Geol. 477, 73-84
Van Lieshout, R.; Kral, Q.; Charnoz, S.; Wyatt, M. C.; Shannon, A. 2018. Exoplanet recycling in massive white-dwarf debris discs. MNRAS 480, 2784-2812
Miljković, K., M. A. Wieczorek, G. S. Collins, M. Laneuville, G. A. Neumann, H. J. Melosh, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, D. E. Smith and M. T. Zuber (2013). Asymmetric distribution of lunar impact basins caused by variations in target properties, Science, 342, 724-726, doi:10.1126/science.1243224.
Laneuville, M., M. A. Wieczorek, D. Breuer, and N. Tosi (2013). Asymmetric thermal evolution of the Moon, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1435-1452, doi:10.1002/jgre.20103.
Thorey, C., and C. Michaut (2014), A model for the dynamics of crater-centered intrusion: Application to lunar floor-fractured craters, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119, 286–312, doi:10.1002/2013JE004467.
Laneuville, M., M. A. Wieczorek, D. Breuer, J. Aubert, G. Morard, T. Rückriemen (2014). A long-lived lunar dynamo powered by core crystallization, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 401, 251-260, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.057.
Miljkovic, K., M. A. Wieczorek, G. S. Collins, S. C. Solomon, D. E. Smith, M. T Zuber, Excavation of the lunar mantle by basin-forming events on the Moon, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in revision.
Price, M.C., Ramkissoon, N. K., McMahon, S., Miljkovic, K., Parnell, J., Wozniakiewicz, P. J., Kearsley, A. T., Blamey, N. J. F., Cole, M. J., Burchell, M. J. (2014). Limits on methane release and generation via hypervelocity impact of Martian analogue materials, Int. J. Astrobiology, 13, 132-140, doi: 10.1017/S1473550413000384.
Thorey C., Michaut C. (2014). A model for the dynamics of crater-centered intrusion: Application to lunar floor-fractured craters, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, DOI: 10.1002/2013JE004467
Thorey C., Michaut C., Wieczorek M. (2015). Gravitational signatures of lunar floor-fractured craters, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.04.021
Charnoz, S. and C. Michaut, Evolution of the protolunar disk: Dynamics, cooling timescale and implantation of volatiles onto the Earth, Icarus 260, p. 440-463, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.07.018, 2015.
Michaut, C., M. Thiriet and C. Thorey, Insights into mare basalt thicknesses on the Moon from intrusive magmatism, Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 257, p.187-192, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2016.05.019, 2016.
Thorey, C. and C. Michaut, Elastic-plated gravity currents with a temperature-dependent viscosity, J. Fluid Mech. 805, p. 88-117, doi:10.1017/jfm.2016.538, 2016.
Thiriet, M., C. Michaut, D. Breuer, and A.-C. Plesa, Consequence of a hemispheric dichotomy in crustal composition on the thermal evolution of Mars, J. Geophys. Res. Planets.
Delage, P., Karakostas, F., Dhemaied, A. , Belmokhtar, M., Lognonné P., Golombek, M., De Laure, E., Hurst, K., Dupla, J.C.,, Keddar, S., Cui, Y.J., Banerdt, W.B., An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Some Martian Regolith Simulants with Respect to the Surface Properties at the InSight Mission Landing Site, Space Sci Rev, 211, 191–213, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-017-0398-9, 2017.
Thiriet, C., C. Michaut, A.-C. Plesa, D. Breuer, Hemispheric dichotomy in lithosphere thickness on Mars caused by differences in crustal structure and composition, accepted to JGR Planets pending minor revisions, 2017.
Thiriet, M., C. Michaut, A.-C. Plesa and D. Breuer,
Hemispheric dichotomy in lithosphere thickness on Mars caused by differences in crustal structure and composition,
J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2017JE005431, 2018.
Thiriet, M., C. Michaut, D. Breuer and A.-C. Plesa,
Scaling laws for cooling planets in a stagnant lid regime,
in revision for Phys. Earth Planet. Int.
Karakostas, F., V.Rakoto, P.Lognonné, C.Larmat, I.Daubar, K.Miljkovic,
Inversion of meteor Rayleigh waves on Earth and modeling of air coupled Rayleigh waves on Mars,
in revision, Space Science Review, 2018
Fayon, L., B.Knapmeyer-Endrun, P. Lognonné, M.Bierwirth, A.Kramer, P.Delage, F.Karakostas, S.Kedar, N.Murdoch, R.Garcia, N.Verdier, S.Tillier, W.T. Pike, K.Hurst, C.Schmelzbach, W.B. Banerdt,
A numerical model of the SEIS leveling system transfer matrix and resonances: application to SEIS rotational seismology and dynamic ground interaction,
in press, Space Science Review, 2018.
Daubar, I., P.Lognonné, N.A. Teanby, K.Miljkovic, J.Stevanovic, J. Vaubaillon, B.Kenda, T. Kawamura, J.Clinton, A.Lucas, M.Drillea, C. Yana, G.S. Collins, D.Banfield, M.Golombek, S. Kedar, N.Schmerr, R.Garcia, S.Rodriguez, T.Gudkova, S.May, M.Banks, J.Maki, E.Sansom, F. Karakostas, M.Panning, N.Fuji, J.Wookey, M.van Driel, M.Lemmon, V.Ansan, M.Böse, S. Stähler, H.Kanamori, J.Richardson, S. Smrekar, W. Bruce Banerdt,
Impact-Seismic Investigations of the InSight Mission
in revision, to Space Science Review, 2018
A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, C. Narteau, B. Charnay, T. Tokano, A. Garcia, M. Thiriet, S. Courrech du Pont, A.G. Hayes, R.D. Lorenz. Origin and morphology of Titan’s dune, GRL 41, Issue 17, pp. 6093-6100, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060971 (2014).
B. Charnay, E. Barth, S. Rafkin, C. Narteau, S. Lebonnois, S. Rodriguez, S. Courrech du Pont and A. Lucas. Methane storms control Titan’s dune orientation, Nature Geoscience 8, 362-366, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2406 (2015).
T. Hatano, C. Narteau, P. Shebalin, Common dependence on stress for the statistics of granular avalanches and earthquakes, Scientific Reports 5, 12280 (2015).
M. Mandea, C. Narteau, I. Panet, J.L. Le Mouel, Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies produced by dissolution-crystallization at the core mantle boundary, Journal of Geophysical Research 120, doi:10.1002/2015JB012048 (2015).
X. Gao, C. Narteau, O. Rozier, S. Courrech du Pont, Phase diagrams of dune shape and orientation depending on sand availability, Scientific Reports, 5, 14677, doi:10.1038/srep14677 (2015).
A. Lucas, C. Narteau, S. Rodriguez, O. Rozier, Y. Callot, A. Garcia and S. Courrech du Pont. Sediment flux from the morphodynamics of elongating linear dunes, Geology 43, 1027–1030, doi:10.1130/G37101.1 (2015).
X. Gao, C. Narteau, O. Rozier, Development and steady states of transverse dunes: a numerical analysis of dune pattern coarsening and giant dunes, Journal of Geophysical Research 120, 2200–2219, doi:10.1002/2015JF003549 (2015).
P. Lv, Z. Dong, C. Narteau, O. Rozier. Morphodynamic mechanisms for the formation of asymmetric barchans: improvement of the Bagnold and Tsoar models , Environmental Earth Sciences, 75:259, doi:10.1007/s12665-015-5083-2 (2016).
X. Gao, C. Narteau, O. Rozier. Controls on and effects of armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields: A numerical simulation study, GRL 43, 2614–2622, doi:10.1002/2016GL068416 (2016).
I. Vorobieva, P. Shebalin, C. Narteau. Break of slope in earthquake size distribution and creep rate along the San Andreas Fault system, GRL 43, 6869–6875, doi:10.1002/2016GL069636 (2016).
P. Lv, C. Narteau, Z. Dong, O. Rozier, S. Courrech du Pont. Unravelling raked linear dunes to assess sediment flux in complex dunefields, Nature Communication, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14239 (2017).
S. Rodriguez, S. Le Mouélic, J. W. Barnes, B. Charnay, J. F. Kok, R. D. Lorenz, J. Radebaugh, T. Cornet, O. Bourgeois, A. Lucas, P. Rannou, C. A. Griffith, A. Coustenis, T. Appéré, M. Hirtzig, C. Sotin, J. M. Soderblom, R. H. Brown, J. Bow, G. Vixie, L. Maltagliati, S. Courrech du Pont, C. Narteau, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, K. H. Baines, B. J. Buratti, R. N. Clark, P. D. Nicholson. Dust storms on Titan, under review in Nature Geoscience.
A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, F. Lemonnier, A. Le Gall, C. Ferrari, P. Paillou, C. Narteau. Texture and composition of Titan’s equatorial sand seas inferred from Cassini SAR data: Implications for aeolian transport and dune morphodynamics at Saturn’s largest moon, under review in JGR.
L. Fernandez-Cascales?, A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, A. Spiga, C. Narteau. From dunes to aeolian sediment transport in north polar sand seas of Mars, under review in EPSL.
Lü, P., C. Narteau, Z. Dong, O. Rozier, S. Courrech du Pont. Unraveling raked linear dunes to assess sediment flux in complex dunefields, Nature Communication 8, 14239, doi:10.1038/ncomms14239, 2017.
Shebalin P., C. Narteau. Depth dependent stress revealed by aftershocks, Nature Communication 8, 14239, NCOMMS-17-04443B, 2017.
Fernandez-Cascales L., Lucas A., S. Rodriguez, X. Gao, A. Spiga, C. Narteau, First quantification of relationship between dune orientation and sediment availability, Olympia Undae, Mars, under review in EPSL.
Lucas A., S. Rodriguez, F. Lemonnier, A. Le Gall, C. Ferrari, P. Paillou, C. Narteau. Texture and composition of Titan’s equatorial sand seas inferred from Cassini SAR data: Implications for aeolian transport and dune morphodynamics at Saturn’s largest moon, under review in J. Geophys. Res. Planets.
Rodriguez S., S. Le Mouélic, J. W. Barnes, B. Charnay, J. F. Kok, R. D. Lorenz, J. Radebaugh, T. Cornet, O. Bourgeois, A. Lucas, P. Rannou, C. A. Griffith, A. Coustenis, T. Appéré, M. Hirtzig, C. Sotin, J. M. Soderblom, R. H. Brown, J. Bow, G. Vixie, L. Maltagliati, S. Courrech du Pont, C. Narteau, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, K. H. Baines, B. J. Buratti, R. N. Clark, P. D. Nicholson. Dust storms on Titan, under review in Nature Geoscience.
Brossier J.F., S. Rodriguez, T. Cornet, A. Lucas, J. Radebaugh, L. Maltagliati, S. Le Mouélic, A. Solomonidou, A. Coustenis, M. Hirtzig, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, and C. Sotin. Titan’s Equatorial Belt: Composition and Geomorphology from Cassini/VIMS and RADAR data, under review in J. Geophys. Res. Planets.
Spiga A., D. Banfield, J. A. Rodriguez Manfredi, M. T. Lemmon, O. Karatekin, F. Forget, N. Murdoch, B. Kenda, P. Lognonné, T. Kawamura, J. Clinton, R. Garcia, L. Rolland, D. Mimoun, R. Widmer, E. Beucler, V. Dehant, N. Teanby, S. Rodriguez, A. Lucas, R. Lorenz, I. Daubar, E. Stutzmann, M. Golombek, N. Mueller, T. Spohn, and W. B. Banerdt. Atmospheric Science with InSight, SSR, accepted.
S. Le Mouélic, J. W. Barnes, B. Charnay, J. F. Kok, R. D. Lorenz, J. Radebaugh, T. Cornet, O. Bourgeois, A. Lucas, P. Rannou, C. A. Griffith, A. Coustenis, T. Appéré, M. Hirtzig, C. Sotin, J. M. Soderblom, R. H. Brown, J. Bow, G. Vixie, L. Maltagliati, S. Courrech du Pont, C. Narteau, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, K. H. Baines, B. J. Buratti, R. N. Clark, P. D. Nicholson. Dust storms on Titan, Nature Geoscience,
Barnes J. W., S. M. MacKenzie, E. F. Young, L. E. Trouille, S. Rodriguez, T. Cornet, B. K. Jackson, M. Ádamkovics, C. Sotin , and J. M. Soderblom. Spherical radiatif transfer in C++ (SRTC++): A parallel Monte-Carlo radiative transfer model for Titan, The Astronomical Journal 155:264 (12pp), 2018.https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aac2db
Turtle E. P., J. E. Perry, J. M. Barbara, A. D. Del Genio, S. Rodriguez, S. Le Mouélic, C. Sotin, J. M. Lora, S. Faulk, P. Corlies, J. Kelland, S. M. MacKenzie, R. A. West, A. S. McEwen, J. I. Lunine, J. Pitesky, T. L. Ray, and M. Roy. Titan’s meteorology over the Cassini mission: Evidence for extensive subsurface methane reservoirs, GRL, doi: 10.1029/2018GL078170
Golombek M., M. Grott, G. Kargl, J. Andrade, J. Marshall, N. Warner, N. A. Teanby, V. Ansan, E. Hauber, J. Voigt, R. Lichtenheldt, B. Knapmeyer-Endrun, I. J. Daubar, D. Kipp, N. Muller, P. Lognonné, C. Schmelzbach, D. Banfield, A. Trebi-Ollennu, J. Maki, S. Kedar, D. Mimoun, N. Murdoch, S. Piqueux, P. Delage, W. T. Pike, C. Charalambous, R. Lorenz, L. Fayon, A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, P. Morgan, A. Spiga, M. Panning, T. Spohn, S. Smrekar, T. Gudkova, R. Garcia, D. Giardini, U. Christensen, T. Nicollier, D. Sollberger, J. Robertsson, K. Ali, B. Kenda, and W. B. Banerdt. Geology and Physical Properties Investigations by the InSight Lander, SSR 214:84, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-018-0512-7
Le Mouélic S., S. Rodriguez, R. Robidel, B. Rousseau, B. Seignovert, C. Sotin, J.W. Barnes, R.H. Brown, K.H. Baines, B.J. Buratti, R.N. Clark, P.D. Nicholson, P. Rannou, and T. Cornet. Mapping polar atmospheric features on Titan with VIMS: From the dissipation of the northern cloud to the onset of a southern polar vortex, Icarus 311, 371–383, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2018.04.028
Brossier J. F.,S. Rodriguez, T. Cornet, A. Lucas, J. Radebaugh, L. Maltagliati, S. Le Mouélic, A. Solomonidou, A. Coustenis, M. Hirtzig, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan,and C. Sotin. Geological evolution of Titan’s equatorial regions: Possible nature and origin of the dune material, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 123, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JE005399
Solomonidou A. , A. Coustenis, R. M. C. Lopes, M. J. Malaska, S. Rodriguez, P. Drossart, C. Elachi, B. Schmitt, S. Philippe, M. Janssen, M. Hirtzig, S. Wall, C. Sotin, K. Lawrence, N. Altobelli, E. Bratsolis, J. Radebaugh, K. Stephan, R. H. Brown, S. Le Mouélic, A. Le Gall, E. V. Villanueva, J. F. Brossier, A. A. Bloom, O. Witasse, C. Matsoukas, and A. Schoenfeld. The Spectral Nature of Titan’s Major Geomorphological Units: Constraints on Surface Composition, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 123, 489–507, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JE005477
Fernandez-Cascales L., A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, X. Gao, A. Spiga, and C. Narteau.First quantification of relationship between dune orientation and sediment availability, Olympia Undae, Mars, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 489, 241–250, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.03.001
Gao X. , Gadal C., Rozier O., Narteau C., 2018
Morphodynamics of barchan and dome dunes under variable wind regimes
Geology, 46, 743–746, doi:10.1130/G45101.1
Panet I. , BonvalotS. , Narteau C. , Remy D. , Lemoine J.-M. (2018)
Migrating pattern of deformation prior to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake revealed by GRACE data
Nature Geoscience, 11, doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0099-3
Barnes Jason W., Shannon M. MacKenzie, Eliot F. Young, Laura E. Trouille, Sebastien Rodriguez, Thomas Cornet, Brian K. Jackson, Mate Adamkovics, Christophe Sotin, and Jason M. Soderblom.
Spherical Radiative Transfer in C++ (SRTC++): A Parallel Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Model for Titan.
ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL, 155(6), JUN 2018.
Brossier, J. F. ,S. Rodriguez, T. Cornet, A. Lucas, J. Radebaugh, L. Maltagliati, S. Le Mouelic, A. Solomonidou, A. Coustenis, M. Hirtzig, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, and C. Sotin.
Geological Evolution of Titan’s Equatorial Regions: Possible Nature and Origin of the Dune Material.
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS, 123(5):1089–1112, MAY 2018.
Fernandez-Cascales, Laura, Antoine Lucas, Sebastien Rodriguez, Xin Gao, Aymeric Spiga, and Clement Narteau.
First quantification of rela- tionship between dune orientation and sediment availability, Olympia Undae, Mars.
EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, 489:241–250, MAY 1 2018.
Golombek, M. Grott, G. Kargl, J. Andrade, J. Marshall, N. Warner, N. A. Teanby, V. Ansan, E. Hauber, J. Voigt, R. Lichtenheldt, B. Knapmeyer-Endrun, I. J. Daubar, D. Kipp, N. Muller, P. Lognonne, C. Schmelzbach, D. Banfield, A. Trebi-Ollennu, J. Maki, S. Kedar, D. Mimoun, N. Murdoch, S. Piqueux, P. Delage, W. T. Pike, C. Charalambous, R. Lorenz, L. Fayon, A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, P. Morgan, A. Spiga, M. Panning, T. Spohn, S. Smrekar, T. Gudkova, R. Garcia, D. Giardini, U. Christensen, T. Nicollier, D. Sollberger, J. Robertsson, K. Ali, B. Kenda, and W. B. Banerdt.
Geology and Physical Properties Investigations by the InSight Lander.
SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS, 214(5), AUG 2018.
Le Mouelic, S. Rodriguez, R. Robidel, B. Rousseau, B. Seignovert, C. Sotin, J. W. Barnes, R. H. Brown, K. H. Baines, B. J. Buratti, R. N. Clark, P. D. Nicholson, R. Rannou, and T. Cornet.
Mapping polar atmospheric features on Titan with VIMS: From the dissipation of the northern cloud to the onset of a southern polar vortex.
ICARUS, 311:371–383, SEP 1 2018.
Rodriguez S., S. Le Mouélic, J. W. Barnes, B. Charnay, J. F. Kok, R. D. Lorenz, J. Radebaugh, T. Cornet, O. Bourgeois, A. Lucas, P. Rannou, C. A. Griffith, A. Coustenis, T. Appéré, M. Hirtzig, C. Sotin, J. M. Soderblom, R. H. Brown, J. Bow, G. Vixie, L. Maltagliati, S. Courrech du Pont, C. Narteau, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, K. H. Baines, B. J. Buratti, R. N. Clark, P. D. Nicholson.
Observational evidence for active dust storms on Titan at equinox.
Nature Geoscience 11, pages 727–732, 2018.
Solomonidou, A. Coustenis, R. M. C. Lopes, M. J. Malaska, S. Rodriguez, P. Drossart, C. Elachi, B. Schmitt, S. Philippe, M. Janssen, M. Hirtzig, S. Wall, C. Sotin, K. Lawrence, N. Altobelli, E. Bratsolis, J. Radebaugh, K. Stephan, R. H. Brown, S. Le Mouelic, A. Le Gall, E. V. Villanueva, J. F. Brossier, A. A. Bloom, O. Witasse, C. Matsoukas, and A. Schoenfeld.
The Spectral Nature of Titan’s Major Geomorphologi- cal Units: Constraints on Surface Composition.
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-PLANETS, 123(2):489–507, FEB 2018.
Turtle, J. E. Perry, J. M. Barbara, A. D. Del Genio, S. Rodriguez, S. Le Mouelic, C. Sotin, J. M. Lora, S. Faulk, P. Corlies, J. Kelland, S. M. MacKenzie, R. A. West, A. S. McEwen, J. I. Lunine, J. Pitesky, T. L. Ray, and M. Roy.
Titan’s Meteorology Over the Cassini Mission: Evidence for Extensive Subsurface Methane Reservoirs.
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 45(11):5320–5328, JUN 16 2018.
Le Mouélic, T. Cornet, S. Rodriguez, C. Sotin, B. Seignovert, J.W. Barnes, R.H. Brown, K.H. Baines, B.J. Buratti, R.N. Clark, P.D. Nicholson, J. Lasue, V. Pasek, and J.M. Soderblom.
The Cassini VIMS archive of Titan: From browse products to global infrared color maps.
Icarus 319, 121-132, 2018.
Spiga A., D. Banfield, J. A. Rodriguez Manfredi, M. T. Lemmon, O. Karatekin, F. Forget, N. Murdoch, B. Kenda, P. Lognonné, T. Kawamura, J. Clinton, R. Garcia, L. Rolland, D. Mimoun, R. Widmer, E. Beucler, V. Dehant, N. Teanby, S. Rodriguez, A. Lucas, R. Lorenz, I. Daubar, E. Stutzmann, M. Golombek, N. Mueller, T. Spohn, and W. B. Banerdt.
Atmospheric Science with InSight,
Space Sci Rev (2018) 214: 109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-018-0543-0.
Gao X., C. Gadal, O. Rozier, C. Narteau. (2018).
Morphodynamics of barchan and dome dunes under variable wind regimes
Geology, 46, 743–746, doi:10.1130/G45101.1
Panet I., S. Bonvalot, C. Narteau, D. Remy, J.-M. Lemoine. (2018).
Migrating pattern of deformation prior to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake revealed by GRACE data
Nature Geoscience 11, doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0099-3