I6: From dust to planets

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  • The processes leading to the formation and subsequent evolution of terrestrial bodies are currently being lively debated. Whereas there is a general agreement that planets form in a protoplanetary disk, rich in dust and gas, many important questions remain unanswered concerning the earliest phases of planet formation: how did the dust coagulate to form planetary building blocks, and how were the different chemical and isotopic compositions found on planets generated?

    Answers and constraints are searched within this LabEx project, by the observation of young protoplanetary disks (VISIR and JWST), through laboratory experiments on meteorites that constrain their formation conditions and timescales, and through numerical simulation of disk evolution.

     

    Artist view of a planetary system formation

     

    Later, once a planet or a satellite has formed, a wealth of information on its assemblage and differentiation processes may be explored. Clues to these processes can be obtained by studying the interior structure of a planet, by investigating the composition of its major geochemical reservoirs, and by investigating the planet’s subsequent thermal evolution.

    These questions can be addressed by the use of geophysical data (such as through the planet’s gravity field or by seismic measurements) and spacecraft derived topographic maps and images of volcanic landforms. High-pressure laboratory experiments are also crucial for understanding the physics of differentiation, and the partitioning of elements between the crust, mantle, and core.

     

    Artist’s impression of the final stage of the formation of a terrestrial planet

     

    As a fully interconnected system, a planet’s atmosphere evolves jointly with its surface and interior evolution. This may lead to the formation of dynamical surface structures like dunes, as has been observed throughout the Solar System, which provide a powerful tool to constrain the atmospheric dynamics and surface materials, but whose morphogenesis and link with climatic conditions are still poorly understood. Furthermore, future studies of exoplanets will be able to make use of spectra of their atmospheres, which will inform us of the planet’s surface and geologic evolution.

    These three research axes are naturally intertwined, and correspond to three broad time periods in planetary evolution. These are the subject of three ambitious research themes through our UnivEarthS project:

    • Formation (theme 1): from dust and gas to planet embryos
    • Early evolution (theme 2): Differentiation, interior structure and geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets
    • Long term evolution (theme 3): atmosphere-surface-interior interactions

    These three research themes are inter-related, and together constrain planetary formation and evolution processes via experiments, and observations (such as from planetary missions). This foster the design of evolution scenarios that are tested using numerical simulations.

    This project was launched in January 2014 and is based on two previous projects “Formation and early evolution of Planetary systems” and “The formation of dunes and climate on Titan”.

     

     


     

    Detailed description of the different research themes

     

    From dust to planet embryos

     

    The purpose of research theme 1 is to study the earliest evolution of planetary systems by combining three complementary approaches (observation, laboratory measurements and experiments, and numerical simulations) in order to build a global picture of the earliest phases of planetary formation, either in our Solar System or in exo-planetary systems. Our aim is to (1) investigate the mechanism and chronology of dust and planetesimal transport in the protoplanetary disk and (2) constrain processes at the origin of the fist solids and of their transformation (i.e., condensation, irradiation) through the study of variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of the components of primitive meteorites.

    Observations of young protoplanetary disks provide crucial information on the large-scale structure and transport of dust and also on the disk thermodynamical structure. Laboratory measurements of meteorites and experimental simulations of some key processes provide important information on the isotopic and chemical composition of dust, then giving constrains on the nebula thermodynamical structure and on transport. Numerical simulation of protoplanetary disks is the ideal tool to test scenarios of protoplanetary disks evolution in order to interpret the data. Our project is to implement in the numerical code isotopic tracers in order to reproduce the observed compositions in meteorites.

    For the observational aspects, AIM is involved in the VISIR instrument (Visible and Infrared Spectro imager, at VLT in Chile) and has guaranteed time on the spectro-imager and coronograph (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope that will be launched in 2020. Infrared Images of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars (<107 years) will reveal the earliest phases of planetary formation. These instruments are ideal to constrain the large structure (in the infrared) of young circumstellar disks that are still gas rich, in terms of spatial distribution of dust and temperature as a function of distance. They provide important constrains on the early dynamics of dust in the protoplanetary disk and will help to calibrate the numerical models, as well as give contextual information to interpret the isotopic data. On the observation side two key tasks will be led to answer the following questions:

    • What is the radial distribution of dust in the disk as a function of the star’s age?
    • How dust sediments to the midplane: do big grains settle in the midlplane and does dust stay in the upper layers?
    • What is the influence of turbulence and is it possible to infer the presence of dead zones (zones devoid of turbulence due to low ionization)?

    Working on dead-zones is especially promising as there is more and more evidence that dead zones could be regions favorable for the formation of big objects (cm sized) that are necessary today to form planetesimals or even planet embryos through processes of streaming instability or peeble accretion. To this respect, we estimate the coagulation rate of dust in these regions as well as their thermal structure in order to see if isotopic signatures may be expected.

    This information will be interpreted in the light of experimental data. Indeed, it is necessary to improve and develop the study of isotopic tracers (short-lived radioactive nuclides; noble gases; equilibrium, kinetic and non-mass dependent stable isotope variations), which could constrain more precisely the timing and the nature of processes such as high-temperature condensation, gas-dust interaction and planetary accretion. These processes, which produced and shaped the first micrometer-size solids, the first planets, as well as the building blocks of the terrestrial planets, can also be simulated experimentally. State of the art analytical techniques combining high spatial resolution and high precision are required to extract all the information from natural samples (meteorites, Moon, Mars, Earth) and from experimental (high-pressure equilibrium, volatilization/condensation, irradiation, adsorption, diffusion) samples. A new platform of experimental cosmochemistry is under construction at IPGP that aims to simulate some key physical processes regarding gas-dust interaction.

    Our approach is developed in 5 tasks:

    • What do the age and composition of CAIs and chondrules really tell us about the formation of the solar system?
    • How can we constrain irradiation processes in the early solar system from analyses of lunar soil grains and meteoritic chondrules and CAIs?
    • Why and how did the isotopic composition of major volatiles elements (O, N and C) change so rapidly in the inner accretion disk?
    • What is the origin of highly volatile elements in parent bodies from laboratory simulations of gas-dust interactions?
    • How and when did the first planetesimals form?

    As disk observations and laboratory measurements provide constrains on the transport of solids, it is necessary to provide scenarios of large scale transport relying on the physics of gaseous and dusty protoplanetary disks based on numerical simulations. On this side AIM is leading the development of a large modeling program focusing on the transport of the first solids in the protoplanetary disk and their incorporation into embryos, including turbulent dynamics, radiative effects, and planet-disk interactions. Simple chemical and isotopic fractionation models are included into simulations of turbulent dust transport in order to test different scenarios to interpret isotopic data. Three important modeling tasks are lead:

    • Development of a dust transport model in the protoplanetary disk, taking into account turbulence and dust condensation (refractories near the Sun and volatiles near the snow line)
    • Coupling of the dust transport model with a radiative transfer code in order to create synthetic images to space observation of disks.
    • Development of a protoplanetary disk thermodynamical model in order to constrain the condition of formation of dust, in order to compare with laboratory data.
    • Estimation of the irradiation flux of dust in the disk in order to calibrate experiments of fractionation of dust under irradiation.

    Beside the earliest phases of planet formation, N-body simulations of embryo transport in the disk (in the frame of the Nice model) is lead to constrain the radial origin of the building blocks that assembled into the modern terrestrial planets. This leads naturally to interactions with research theme 2 that concerns itself with the initial differentiation and interior structure of the terrestrial planets.

     

    Differentiation, interior structure and geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets

     

    The processes that took place during the initial differentiation of the Earth are reasonable well understood, the composition of the major chemical reservoirs (crust, mantle, and core) are relatively well known, and the manner by which internal heat is lost to space via plate tectonics is understood from both observational of modeling perspectives. For the other terrestrial planets, however, our understanding of these processes is considerably more limited, and many first-order questions remain unresolved. For example:

     

    1. What is the thickness and composition of the crust of Mercury, the Moon, and Mars?
    2. At what depths do the major phase transitions occur in the mantles of Mars and Venus, and how do these phase transitions affect mantle convection and plume dynamics?
    3. What is the size of the metallic core of Mercury, Mars, and the Moon? And what are the abundances of light alloying elements such as sulfur, carbon, and silicon in the liquid portion of their cores?
    4. Do Mercury, Mars and the Moon possess a solid inner core? And is core crystallization the source of energy that is powering the dynamo-generated magnetic field of Mercury today?
    5. What was the energy source that powered the early dynamos of Mars and the Moon, and why did their dynamos later shut off?

     

    To address these and other question, this project relies upon a three-pronged approach, making use of geophysical data collected by planetary missions, high-pressure laboratory experiments, and numerical and geophysical modeling. Members of this research axe are currently involved in several NASA and ESA planetary missions at both the co-investigator and principal-investigator level, including NASA’s geophysical missions to the Moon (GRAIL) and Mars (InSight), and ESA’s orbital missions to Mercury (BepiColumbo) and Jupiter (JUICE). Furthermore, members of our project have recently finished the construction of a world-class high-pressure geo-materials laboratory that is currently making its measurements. Together, these datasets offer us a unique perspective to unravel the above listed questions concerning the differentiation, interior evolution, and geologic evolution of the terrestrial planets.

     

    The first two years of the UnivEarthS I1 project funded our analyses of lunar gravitational data acquired during the primary mission of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Results from our group have shown that the crust of the Moon is significantly thinner than once thought, that the crust has been highly fractured by billions of years of impact cratering, and that lateral variations in crustal temperature have had a dramatic influence on the morphology of giant impact basins. During this initial stage of analysis, the UnivEarthS funded a LabEx postdoc, and contributed to the publications of two articles in the journal Science. We now have at our disposal gravitational data from the extended mission, which has a spatial resolution that is two times better than that acquired during the primary mission. Now we aim to study processes that were previously beyond reach, such as the gravitational signature of magnetic anomalies and magmatic intrusions, and the subsurface structure of medium-sized simple and complex impact craters.

    At the time the initial UnivEarthS proposal was selected, our group anticipated on providing a seismometer to the Japanese lunar geophysical mission SELENE-2 (with a launch near 2018). Since this time, NASA selected the Martian geophysical mission InSight, to be launched in 2018. Members of our research group are providing, at the principal investigator level, the sole instrument that is above the mission’s “science threshold.” This instrument is the very broad-band seismometer that is being developed at IPGP, and which will make the first seismic measurements ever on the surface of Mars.

    Data from this mission will constrain the size of the martian core, determine if a solid inner core exists, determine the thickness of the crust, and search for seismic discontinuities in the mantle (among other objectives). The UnivEarthS project previously agreed to fund a LabEx postdoc and a co-financed thesis student for seismic analysis related to the SELENE-2 mission, and these resources were redirected towards the InSight mission in this revised project.

    The proposed experimental approach aims at combining astrophysical models of planetary accretion with geochemical models of planetary differentiation, and cosmochemical constraints provided by meteorites. During the first two years funded by the UnivEarthS LabEx, the young research group (JE1) developed protocols to use the laser-heated diamond anvil cell for studying the geochemical imprint of planetary core formation. We have shown notably in a recent publication in Science that the partitioning of slightly siderophile elements (V and Cr) during core formation imply that accretion of the Earth could have occurred under conditions that were more oxidizing than previously thought. In this way, Earth can accrete from materials as oxidized as the most common meteorites (i.e., ordinary or carbonaceous chondrites) and imply large mixing of proto-planetary materials in the inner solar system. Similarly Ni and Co partitioning shows clearly that the core cannot form at pressures lower than 35 GPa, nor can it form at pressure higher than 65 GPa, bracketing for the first time the depth of the terrestrial magma ocean in the first 50 million years after the birth of the Solar System.

     

    The research we develop will help us constrain and understand the primordial differentiation of terrestrial bodies in the Solar System. We plan to understand the early evolution of Vesta by combining high-precision isotope geochemistry with experimental geochemistry through the study of isotopic fractionation of siderophile and volatile elements (Si, Cr, Ga, Cu, Zn, Sn), as well as moderately siderophile elements (W, Mo). One of the aims is to understand the accretion of the so-called Late Veneer on small planetary embryos. These studies can be applied to understanding the Earth-Moon system after the giant impact through the comparison between Apollo samples and experimental charges, once again with a special focus on volatile elements and their isotropic fractionation. We have access to a very large collection of SNCs and have plans to propose refined models of Martian differentiation, to understand the processes that can occur in a very short timescale and compare it with the relatively long timescale of terrestrial accretion. These studies all require a savvy mix of experiments and cosmochemical observation and access to “rare” samples, and represent a perfect integration of the experimentalists in this proposal with the cosmochemists.

     

    Planetary interfaces: atmosphere-surface-interior interactions

     

    The atmosphere of planetary body with no plate tectonics mainly forms and survives through the release of volatiles from the mantle (or ice shell) by volcanism (or cryovolcanism) and the persistence of surface reservoirs for those volatiles. The presence and survival of an atmosphere provides in that way a window into the evolution of the volcanic activity, the atmospheric dynamics and composition (climate), and the geology and geodynamics of a planetary body.

     

    The aim of research theme 3 is thus to study the strong coupling between planetary bodies’ interiors, surfaces and atmospheres, constraining their concomitant formation and evolution throughout the age of the Solar System. This axis combines the joint characterization of the solid and fluid envelops of terrestrial planets, satellites and exoplanets following a complete comparative planetology approach (with Mars, Titan and “exoplanets with an atmosphere” as archetypes), in a multi-disciplinary way. This project  includes analysis of planetary mission data, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments.

     

    Atmosphere/interior/habitability coupling on Mars.

     

    The INSIGHT mission, planned to land on Mars in 2018, will provide the first constraints on martian mantle discontinuities and better constrain the thickness and composition of the crust composition. Constraints on the mantle size, if coupled with better constraints on the thermodynamical properties of the mantle phase transitions, can be used for better modeling and understanding of early martian mantle dynamics, mantle convection, rates of crustal production, and evolution in basaltic composition. Furthermore, constraints on the crust and mantle melt density can be used to estimate the amount of melt that is stored within or below the crust relative to the amount of melt that reaches the surface and hence releases its volatiles into the atmosphere. With the new data provided by the INSIGHT mission, we thus aim to constrain the coupled interior/atmosphere co-evolution of Mars and its impact on the primitive habitability of the planet.

    INSIGHT will also provide the first coupled geophysical and meteorological observatory on Mars. We expect the mission to detect the micro-seismic noise generated by the interaction of wind with the surface. This will be used to monitor and constraint the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and to constrainthe surface saltation processes.

    Dune physics and the link with planetary climate.

    During the last years, new collaborations have been established with the Chinese Academy of Science to develop a novel type of field experiment designed to examine the physics of sand dunes within their natural environment using controlled initial and boundary conditions. This so-called landscape-scale experiment is a new and unique concept that is particularly well-suited for validation and quantification purposes. Given the extreme conditions encountered in arid deserts and the time scales associated with the development of bedforms, in-situ experiments on aeolian sand dunes have to combine logistics facilities with long term measurements.

    By successfully meeting these challenges in China, thanks to the local climate and the field expertise of Chinese scientists, we were able to obtain new experimental evidences for the formation of dunes and their alignment in multimodal wind regimes. From this, we have a unique set of data to investigate dune morphodynamics, which is intended to be put in close relation to dune morphodynamics and climate on Earth and other planetary bodies were dunes have been observed (Mars and Saturn largest moon Titan).

     

     

  • POSITION NAME SURNAME LABORATORY NAME GRADE, EMPLOYER
    WP leader

    Theme 3 leader

    S. Rodriguez AIM/IPGP Assistant Professor, Univ Paris Diderot
    WP co-leader

    Theme 1 leader

    S. Charnoz AIM/IPGP Professor, Univ Paris Diderot
    WP co-leader

    Theme 2 leader

    C. Michaut IPGP/ENS Lyon Assistant Professor, Univ Paris Diderot (to become Professor, ENS Lyon)
    WP member M. Moreira IPGP Professor, Univ Paris Diderot
    WP member F. Moynier IPGP Professor, Univ Paris Diderot
    WP member M. Chaussidon IPGP DR, CNRS
    WP member J. Siebert IPGP Assistant Professor, Univ Paris Diderot
    WP member P. Lognonné IPGP Professor, Univ Paris Diderot
    WP member R. A. Garcia AIM Research Engineer CEA
    WP member S. Matis AIM Research Engineer CEA
    WP member M. Drilleau IPGP IR, CNRS
    WP member E. Clévédé IPGP CR, CNRS
    WP member C. Narteau IPGP Assistant Professor, Univ Paris Diderot
    WP member A. Lucas AIM/IPGP Postdoc/CR CNRS
    WP member Pignatale Francesco IPGP Post-doc
    WP member Sossi Paolo IPGP Post-doc
    WP member Creech John IPGP Post-doc
    WP member Deng Zhengbin IPGP PhD student
    WP member Kubik Edith IPGP PhD student
    WP member Allibert Laetticia IPGP PhD student
    WP member Ke Zhu IPGP PhD student
    WP member Mahan Brandon IPGP PhD student
    WP member Peron Sandrine IPGP PhD student
    WP member M. Thiriet IPGP Labex PhD student, C. Michaut
    WP member F. Karakostas IPGP Labex PhD student, P. Lognonné
    WP member M. Saade IPGP Labex postdoc
    WP member L. Fernandez IPGP Labex PhD student

  • Theme 1 FORMATION from dust and gas to planet embryos:

     

    The laser ablation system that was acquired thanks to Labex funding is now running in routine. Following our first paper (Chaussidon et al. RimG 2017), graduate student Zhengbin Deng has been working on it to study the thermal processes and the ages of the solar system first solids (chondrules). He has written a manuscript that is about to be submitted to GCA in which we show that we can track the partial evaporation of Mg from melted chondrules and combine that with radiogenic 26Mg excess to evaluate the age of the heating events.

    With post-doc Sossi we have developed the first V isotopic measurements in CAIs and found the first definitive proves of early solar system irradiation (Sossi et al. 2017, Nature Astronomy).

    As stressed in our previous report we have now finished the first set of evaporation experiments at varying fO2 and T to develop a new scale of volatility applicable to planetary environments. We have developed a full set of thermodynamic modeling on those data and we have a draft of a manuscript that will soon be submitted to GCA.

    Furthermore, we performed experiments at the direct conditions of core formation in a deep magma ocean (P≥ 40 GPa and T≥ 3000 K) to constrain the distribution of Mn and Na between the core and mantle. The results show that the Earth experienced limited post-nebular volatilization and that the Earth underwent a style of volatile depletion similar to that experienced by chondrites (i.e. incomplete condensation in the solar nebula).

    We also have shown that the Moon was isotopically identical to the Earth for all the isotopes of Cr and Fe-These results are very important with regards to the mode of formation of the Moon and for the material at the origin of the giant impact that must be very similar to the one of the Earth (Sossi and Moynier 2017, EPSL and Mougel, Moynier, Goepel, 2017 EPSL).

    On the side of planet formation, thanks to the LABEX we have achieved a significant piece of work concerning the origin of Phobos ans Deimos (the martian moons), in collaboration with Pascal Rosenblatt (ORB) and with Hidenori GENDA (ELSI, Tokyo). This work is especially timely as the Japanese space agency (JAXA) has programmed a sample-return mission to Phobos in 2024.

     

    Theme 2 EARLY EVOLUTION geology and internal structure of Solar System bodies

     

    The first years of the program were dedicated to the analysis of High-resolution gravity data of the Moon from NASA’s mission GRAIL. The work of Labex post-doc K. Milkovic (2012-2014), now permanent researcher at Curtin University, Australia, has shown that the larger number of large impact basins observed on the nearside of the Moon is due to the higher temperatures caused by the high concentration in radioactive elements on that side (Miljkovic et al., Science, 2013). This work was one of the major results that came from the GRAIL science team.

    Our theme has then seen a transition from the analysis of GRAIL data to the preparation of the NASA’s InSight mission to Mars (launch on May 5th 2018). By comparing 1D and 3D thermal evolution models, PhD student M. Thiriet has shown that, despite changes in heating modes (bottom / internal) during the cooling of terrestrial planets, such as Mars, mantle cooling is well represented by parametrized scaling laws using specific sets of parameters, that Mélanie has characterized (Manuscript in preparation).

    The last contribution of the Labex to InSight started in May 2017 with the postdoc of Maria SAADE. Maria SAADE is developing the modeling tools to compute seismograms for 3D Mars structure, including planet rotation, ellipticity, crustal variations and mantle lateral variation. These tools will be very important in the inversion and production of the first references models, as detailed in Panning, Lognonné et al. (2017).

     

    Theme 3 LONG-TERM EVOLUTION atmosphere-surface-interior interactions

     

    Since the beginning of the project, our aim is to study extraterrestrial deserts and dunes in order to understand the complex interplay between planetary climates and surface sediment. Through the study of the dynamics of linear dunes, with the help of relevant terrestrial analogues, we were able to better assess the properties of atmospheric dynamics and regolith of Titan and Mars.

    The morphodynamics of dunes in the context of complex multidirectional wind regimes have still to be understood. We dedicated the year 2017 to analyze the particular dynamics of terrestrial raked linear dunes that can be found not only in many terrestrial deserts but also on Mars and Titan (Lü et al., 2017). Raked linear dunes keep a constant orientation for considerable distances with a marked asymmetry between a periodic pattern of semi-crescentic structures on one side and a continuous slope on the other. We showed that this shape is associated with a steady-state dune type arising from the coexistence of two dune growth mechanisms (the “bed instability” and the “fingering” modes).

    Regarding extraterrrestrial dunes, we continued our effort to export our knowledge of terrestrial dune and desert dynamics to constrain the nature, origin and evolution of Mars and Titan dunes, and to better characterize Mars and Titan climates and soils.

    We report, for the first time the detection of dust storm events of Titan (Rodriguez et al., under review in Nature Geoscience). Occurrences of dust storms, above dune fields, provide for the very first time a direct evidence of the possible actual activity of the underlying dune fields, under current atmospheric conditions (in terms of surface humidity and wind strength).

    In the course of the year 2017, using microwave and infrared data from Cassini, we studied in details the composition and textural properties of the sediment constituting Titan’s immense sand seas (including the dune and interdune areas), still largely unknown.

    Finally, with the aim to take advantage of this LabEx project to collaborate more closely with the members of the present WP working on a different THEME, we very recently developed experiments and projects using the INSIGHT instrumentation (robotic arm, cameras and meteorological package) with THEME 2 investigators to study the properties of the Martian regolith and its response to wind forcing. We also intend to monitor impact craters nearby the landing site of INSIGHT and help the interpretation of the related seismic detection in terms of regolith and near-surface material properties. All these investigations are coordinated with colleagues of the THEME 2 and officially participate to the science activities of the INSIGHT Science Operation, Surface and Atmospheric Working Groups (Golombek et al., Spiga et al., Daubar et al., in preparation).

     

     

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    Theme 1:

     

    Baillié K., Charnoz S., Time Evolution of a Viscous Protoplanetary Disk with a Free Geometry: Toward a More Self-consistent Picture. 2014. Apj 786, id.35

    Tajeddine R; N., Rambaux; Lainey, , S. charnoz and 3 co-authors. Constraints on Mimas’ interior from Cassini ISS libration measurements. Accepted in SCIENCE (publication in Nov. 2014)

    S. Charnoz, J. Aléon, N. Chaumard, E. Tailliffet. Formation of CAI by coagulation and fragmentation. Submitted to Icarus. Moderate revisions required.

    Baillié K., Charnoz S., Pantin E. Evolution of front regions and planet traps in an evolving protoplanetary disk. Submitted to A&A

    Charnoz S. , Michaut C. Dynamical and thermodynamical evolution of the protoluar disk. Submitted to Icarus.

    Chaussidon M. & Liu M.C. Early Solar System processes: from nebular gas to the precursors of the Earth. AGU Monograph “Early Earth”

    Furi E, Chaussidon M. & Marty B. (accepté) Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a CV3 CAI. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta

    Luu T.-H., Young E.D. , Gounelle M. & Chaussidon M. (en révision) A short time interval for condensation of high temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.

    Mishra R. & Chaussidon M. (2014) Fossil records of high level of 60Fe in chondrules from unequilibrated chondrites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 398, 90-100.

    Moreira M., Charnoz S. . The origin of the neon isotopes in chondrites and Earth, Submitted to EPSL

    Paul S. Savage, Heng Chen, Igor S. Puchtel, Gregory Shofner, J. Siebert, J. Badro, F. Moynier. Under review, Nature Geoscience.

    Moynier, F. et Fegley, B. The Earth’s building blocks. AGU monograph, accepted with revisions.

    Chen, H., Moynier, F., Humayun, M., Bishop, MC, Williams, J. Cosmogenic effects on Cu isotopes in IVB iron meteorites: Implications for the Hf-W chronometry. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta. Accepted with revisions

    Chavrit, D., Moreira, M. Moynier, F. Unusual neon isotopic composition in Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks: fluorine bearing minerals or impact event? Precambrian Research. In review.

    Siebert, J., P. Sossi, I. Blanchard, B. Mahan, J. Badro, F. Moynier. Chondritic Mn/Na ratio and limited post-nebular volatile loss of the Earth. In revision to EPSL.

    $Sossi, P., Nebel, O., O’Neill, H., Moynier, F. Progressive Accretion of Earth’s Moderately Volatile Elements revealed by Zn Isotopes. In review to Chem. Geol.

    *Paniello, R., Moynier F., Zn isotopes composition of ordinary chondrites. In revision to GCA.

    Moynier, F., Fike, D., Menard,G., Fisher, W., Grotzigner, J., Agranier, A. Fe isotopes and the redox state of the ediacaran ocean. Accepted with revision to Geology.

    Charbonnier, Moynier, Bouchez, Ba isotope geochemistry. In review to Science Bulletin.

    Mougel, B., Moynier F., Goepel, C. Chromium isotopic homogeneity between the Earth, the Moon and enstatite chondrites. 2017 EPSL. In press.

    Badullovich, Moynier, *Creech, *Sossi and Teng. Tin stable isotopic fractionation during igneous differentiation. 2017 GPL. In press.

    Mahan, B., Moynier, F., Beck, P., Pringle, E., Siebert, J. Thermal history and volatile loss in carbonaceous chondrites: insights from water content, Zn isotopes and volatile element abundances. 2018, 19-35. GCA.

    Kato and Moynier. 2017. Gallium isotopic evidence for the origin of moderately volatile elements in planetary materials. 479, 430-439. EPSL.

    Dhaliwal, JK, Day, J., Moynier, F. Volatile element loss during planetary magma ocean phases. 2017. Icarus. In press.

    Bollard, J. Connelly, J., Whitehouse, M, Pringle EA, Bonal, L., Jorgensen, J. Nordlung, A., Moynier, F., Bizzarro, M. 2017 Early formation of planetary building blocks inferred from Pb ages of chondrules.. Science. Advances. 3 (8), e1700407

    Day, J., Moynier, F., Shearer, C. 2017. Last stage magmatic degasing from a volatile depleted Moon. PNAS. 10.1073/pnas.1708236114

    *Kato and Moynier. 2017 Gallium isotopic evidence for a volatile depleted Moon. Science Advances. 3 (7), e1700571

    Rodovská, Z., Magna, T., Zak, K., Kato, C., Savage, P., Moynier, F., Skala, R., Jezek, J. 2017. Implications for behavior of volatile elements during impacts – zinc and copper systematics in sediments from the Ries impact structure and central European tektites. MAPS. In press.

    Magna, T. Zak, K., Pack, A., Moynier, F. Mougel, B., Skala R., Jonasova S., Mizera J., Randa, Z. 2017 Zhamanshin astrobleme : O-Cr evidence for a carbonaceous chondrite impactor. Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-00192-5

    *Pringle, E., Moynier, F. 2017 Rubidium isotopic composition of the Earth, meteorites, and the Moon: evidence for the origin of volatile loss during planetary accretion. EPSL. 473, 62-70

    $Creech, J., Moynier, F. Bizzarro, M. Tracing metal/silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and in the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes. GCA. 216, 28-41.

    $Sossi, P., Moynier, F. 2017 Chemical and isotopic kinship of iron in the Earth and Moon deduced from the lunar Mg-Suite. EPSL. 471, 125-135

    *Amsellem, E., Moynier, F., Pringle, E., Bouvier, A., Day, J. 2017 Testing the chondrule-rich accretion theory with Ca isotopes. EPSL. 469, 75-83

    *Pringle, E.A., Moynier, F., Beck, P., Paniello, R., Hezel, D.C., 2017. The origin of volatile element depletion in early solar system material: clues from Zn isotopes in chondrules. Earth Plan. Sci. Lett, EPSL, 468, 62-71$Creech, J., Moynier, F., *Badullovich, N. 2017. Tin stable isotope analysis of geological materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS. Chem. Geol. 457, 61-67.

    Moynier, F., Shaw, A., LeBorgne M. 2017. Zinc isotopic behavior during Alzheimer’s disease. GPL. 3, 142-150.

    Moynier, F. Fujii, T. Ab initio calcualtion of Ca isotopic fractionation between molecules relevant to biology, geology and medical sciences. 2017, Scientific Reports. 7: 44255.

    Day, J., Moynier, F. Meshik, A., Pradivtseva, O., Petit, D. Evaporative fractionation of volatile elements during the first nuclear detonation. 2017 Science Advances. Vol. 3, no. 2, e1602668 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602668

    $Mougel, B. Moynier, F. Gopel, C., Koeberl, C. Chromium isotope evidence in impact ejecta for the nature of the impactors of the Sudbury and Vredefort structures. 2017 EPSL. 460, 105-11.

    *Kato, C., Moynier, F., Foriel, J., Teng, FZ, Puchtel, I. The gallium isotopic composition of the bulk silicate Earth. 2017 Chem Geol. 448, 164-172

    Sossi, P. Moynier, F. Chaussidon, M., Villeuneuve, J., *Kato, C., Gounelle, M. Early Solar System Irridiation revealed by correlated vanadium and beryllium isotope variations in meteorites. 2017 Nature Astronomy. 10.1038/s41550-017-0055

    $Creech, J.Baker, J., Handler, M., Lorand, JP, Storey, M. Moynier, F. Bizzarro, M., Late accretion history of terrestrial planets inferred from stable isotopes. GPL. 2017. 2, 94-104

    Moynier, F. The isotope geochemistry of Zn. Encyclopedia of geochemistry.

    Chaussidon, M. *Deng, ZB, Villeneuve, J., Moureau, J., Richter, F., Moynier, F. In situ analysis of non-traditional isotopes by SIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS: key aspects and the example of Mg isotopes in olivines and silicate glasses. 2017 Review in mineralogy and geochemistry. Vol. 82. 127-164

    *Mahan, B., Siebert, J., Pringle, E., Moynier, F. Elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation of Zn between metal and silicate and geochemical estimation of the S content of the Earth’s core. 2017 GCA, 196, 252-270

    Moynier, F., Vance, D., Fujii, T., Savage, P. The Cu and Zn isotope geochemistry. Review in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 2017. Vol. 82, 543-600

    Morard, D. Andrault, D. Antonangeli, Y. Nakajima, A.L. Auzende, E. Boulard, S. Cervera, A. Clark, O.T. Lord, J. Siebert, V. Svitlyk, G. Garbarino, M. Mezouar. Structure and density of Fe-C liquid alloys under high pressure. In press. GRL

    Blanchard, J. Siebert, J. Badro. 2017. The solubility of heat-producing elements in Earth’s core. GPL, 5, 1-5. 

    Morard, D. Andrault, D. Antonangeli, Y. Nakajima, A.L. Auzende, E. Boulard, S. Cervera, A. Clark, Lord, J. Siebert, V. Svitlyk, G. Garbarino, M. Mezouar 2017. Fe-FeO and Fe-Fe3C melting relations at Earth’s Core-Mantle Boundary conditions: implications for a volatile-rich or oxygen-rich core. EPSL, 473, 94-103.

    Suer, J. Siebert, L. Rémusat, N. Menguy, G. Fiquet 2017. A sulfur-poor terrestrial core inferred from metal-silicate partitioning experiments. EPSL, 469, 84-97.

    Jaupart, E., Charnoz, S. and Moreira, M. 2017 Primordial atmosphere incorporation in planetary embryos and the origin of terrestrial Neon. Icarus 293, 199-205.

    Peron, S., Moreira, M., Putlitz, B. and Kurz, M.D. 2017 Solar wind implantation supplied light volatiles during the first stage of Earth accretion. GPL 3, doi: 10.7185/geochemlet.1718.

    Charnoz S., Canup R.M., Crida A., Dones L. 2018. The Origin of Planetary Ring System. To appear in “Planetary Rings 2”, C.D. Murray and M. Tiscareno Eds., Univ. Of Arizona Press

    Mousis O., Charnoz S., et al., 2017. Scientific rationale for Uranus and Neptune in situ explorations. Submitted to PSS

    *Hyodo R., Genda H., Charnoz S., Rosenblatt P., 2017. On the Impact Origin of Phobos and Deimos. I. Thermodynamic and Physical Aspects. ApJ 845, id. 125

    *Hyodo R., Charnoz S., Ohtsuki K., Genda H., 2017. Ring formation around giant planets by tidal disruption of a single passing large Kuiper belt object. Icarus 282, 195-213

    *Hyodo R., Charnoz S., 2018. Dynamical Evolution of the debris disk after sa satellite catastrophic disruption around Saturn. Astron. J., 154, Id.34

    *Hyodo R., Charnoz S., Genda H., Ohstsuki K., 2016.Formation of Centaurs’ Rings through Their Partial Tidal Disruption during Planetary Encounters. ApJL 828, id L8

     


    Theme 2:

     

    Miljković, K., M. A. Wieczorek, G. S. Collins, M. Laneuville, G. A. Neumann, H. J. Melosh, S. C. Solomon, R. J. Phillips, D. E. Smith and M. T. Zuber (2013). Asymmetric distribution of lunar impact basins caused by variations in target properties, Science, 342, 724-726, doi:10.1126/science.1243224.

    Laneuville, M., M. A. Wieczorek, D. Breuer, and N. Tosi (2013). Asymmetric thermal evolution of the Moon, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1435-1452, doi:10.1002/jgre.20103.

    Thorey, C., and C. Michaut (2014), A model for the dynamics of crater-centered intrusion: Application to lunar floor-fractured craters, J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 119, 286–312, doi:10.1002/2013JE004467.

    Laneuville, M., M. A. Wieczorek, D. Breuer, J. Aubert, G. Morard, T. Rückriemen (2014). A long-lived lunar dynamo powered by core crystallization, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 401, 251-260, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.057.

    Miljkovic, K., M. A. Wieczorek, G. S. Collins, S. C. Solomon, D. E. Smith, M. T Zuber, Excavation of the lunar mantle by basin-forming events on the Moon, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in revision.

    Price, M.C., Ramkissoon, N. K., McMahon, S., Miljkovic, K., Parnell, J., Wozniakiewicz, P. J., Kearsley, A. T., Blamey, N. J. F., Cole, M. J., Burchell, M. J. (2014). Limits on methane release and generation via hypervelocity impact of Martian analogue materials, Int. J. Astrobiology, 13, 132-140, doi: 10.1017/S1473550413000384.

    Thorey C., Michaut C. (2014). A model for the dynamics of crater-centered intrusion: Application to lunar floor-fractured craters, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, DOI: 10.1002/2013JE004467

    Thorey C., Michaut C., Wieczorek M. (2015). Gravitational signatures of lunar floor-fractured craters, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.04.021

    Charnoz, S. and C. Michaut, Evolution of the protolunar disk: Dynamics, cooling timescale and implantation of volatiles onto the Earth, Icarus 260, p. 440-463, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.07.018, 2015.

    Michaut, C., M. Thiriet and C. Thorey, Insights into mare basalt thicknesses on the Moon from intrusive magmatism, Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 257, p.187-192, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2016.05.019, 2016.

    Thorey, C. and C. Michaut, Elastic-plated gravity currents with a temperature-dependent viscosity, J. Fluid Mech. 805, p. 88-117, doi:10.1017/jfm.2016.538, 2016.

    Thiriet, M., C. Michaut, D. Breuer, and A.-C. Plesa, Consequence of a hemispheric dichotomy in crustal composition on the thermal evolution of Mars, J. Geophys. Res. Planets.

    Delage, P., Karakostas, F., Dhemaied, A. , Belmokhtar, M., Lognonné P., Golombek, M., De Laure, E., Hurst, K., Dupla, J.C.,, Keddar, S., Cui, Y.J., Banerdt, W.B., An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Some Martian Regolith Simulants with Respect to the Surface Properties at the InSight Mission Landing Site, Space Sci Rev, 211, 191–213, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-017-0398-9, 2017.

    Thiriet, C., C. Michaut, A.-C. Plesa, D. Breuer, Hemispheric dichotomy in lithosphere thickness on Mars caused by differences in crustal structure and composition, accepted to JGR Planets pending minor revisions, 2017.

     

     


    Theme 3:

     

    A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, C. Narteau, B. Charnay, T. Tokano, A. Garcia, M. Thiriet, S. Courrech du Pont, A.G. Hayes, R.D. Lorenz. Origin and morphology of Titan’s dune, GRL 41, Issue 17, pp. 6093-6100, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060971 (2014).

    B. Charnay, E. Barth, S. Rafkin, C. Narteau, S. Lebonnois, S. Rodriguez, S. Courrech du Pont and A. Lucas. Methane storms control Titan’s dune orientation, Nature Geoscience 8, 362-366,  doi: 10.1038/ngeo2406 (2015).

    T. Hatano, C. Narteau, P. Shebalin, Common dependence on stress for the statistics of granular avalanches and earthquakes, Scientific Reports 5, 12280 (2015).

    M. Mandea, C. Narteau, I. Panet, J.L. Le Mouel, Gravimetric and magnetic anomalies produced by dissolution-crystallization at the core mantle boundary, Journal of Geophysical Research  120, doi:10.1002/2015JB012048 (2015).

    X. Gao, C. Narteau, O. Rozier, S. Courrech du Pont, Phase diagrams of dune shape and orientation depending on sand availability, Scientific Reports, 5, 14677, doi:10.1038/srep14677 (2015).

    A. Lucas, C. Narteau, S. Rodriguez, O. Rozier, Y. Callot, A. Garcia  and S. Courrech du Pont. Sediment flux from the morphodynamics of elongating linear dunes, Geology 43, 1027–1030, doi:10.1130/G37101.1 (2015).

    X. Gao, C. Narteau, O. Rozier, Development and steady states of transverse dunes: a numerical analysis of dune pattern coarsening and giant dunes, Journal of Geophysical Research 120, 2200–2219, doi:10.1002/2015JF003549 (2015).

    P. Lv, Z. Dong, C. Narteau, O. Rozier. Morphodynamic mechanisms for the formation of asymmetric barchans: improvement of the Bagnold and Tsoar models , Environmental Earth Sciences, 75:259, doi:10.1007/s12665-015-5083-2 (2016).

    X. Gao, C. Narteau, O. Rozier. Controls on and effects of armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields: A numerical simulation study, GRL 43, 2614–2622, doi:10.1002/2016GL068416 (2016).

    I. Vorobieva, P. Shebalin, C. Narteau. Break of slope in earthquake size distribution and creep rate along the San Andreas Fault system, GRL 43, 6869–6875, doi:10.1002/2016GL069636 (2016).

    P. Lv, C. Narteau, Z. Dong, O. Rozier, S. Courrech du Pont. Unravelling raked linear dunes to assess sediment flux in complex dunefields, Nature Communication, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14239 (2017).

    S. Rodriguez, S. Le Mouélic, J. W. Barnes, B. Charnay, J. F. Kok, R. D. Lorenz, J. Radebaugh, T. Cornet, O. Bourgeois, A. Lucas, P. Rannou, C. A. Griffith, A. Coustenis, T. Appéré, M. Hirtzig, C. Sotin, J. M. Soderblom, R. H. Brown, J. Bow, G. Vixie, L. Maltagliati, S. Courrech du Pont, C. Narteau, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, K. H. Baines, B. J. Buratti, R. N. Clark, P. D. Nicholson. Dust storms on Titan, under review in Nature Geoscience.

    A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, F. Lemonnier, A. Le Gall, C. Ferrari, P. Paillou, C. Narteau. Texture and composition of Titan’s equatorial sand seas inferred from Cassini SAR data: Implications for aeolian transport and dune morphodynamics at Saturn’s largest moon, under review in JGR.

    L. Fernandez-Cascales?, A. Lucas, S. Rodriguez, A. Spiga, C. Narteau. From dunes to aeolian sediment transport in north polar sand seas of Mars, under review in EPSL.

    Lü, P., C. Narteau, Z. Dong, O. Rozier, S. Courrech du Pont. Unraveling raked linear dunes to assess sediment flux in complex dunefields, Nature Communication 8, 14239, doi:10.1038/ncomms14239, 2017.

    Shebalin P., C. Narteau. Depth dependent stress revealed by aftershocks, Nature Communication 8, 14239, NCOMMS-17-04443B, 2017.

    Fernandez-Cascales L., Lucas A., S. Rodriguez, X. Gao, A. Spiga, C. Narteau, First quantification of relationship between dune orientation and sediment availability, Olympia Undae, Mars, under review in EPSL.

    Lucas A., S. Rodriguez, F. Lemonnier, A. Le Gall, C. Ferrari, P. Paillou, C. Narteau. Texture and composition of Titan’s equatorial sand seas inferred from Cassini SAR data: Implications for aeolian transport and dune morphodynamics at Saturn’s largest moon, under review in J. Geophys. Res. Planets.

    Rodriguez S., S. Le Mouélic, J. W. Barnes, B. Charnay, J. F. Kok, R. D. Lorenz, J. Radebaugh, T. Cornet, O. Bourgeois, A. Lucas, P. Rannou, C. A. Griffith, A. Coustenis, T. Appéré, M. Hirtzig, C. Sotin, J. M. Soderblom, R. H. Brown, J. Bow, G. Vixie, L. Maltagliati, S. Courrech du Pont, C. Narteau, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, K. H. Baines, B. J. Buratti, R. N. Clark, P. D. Nicholson. Dust storms on Titan, under review in Nature Geoscience.

    Brossier J.F., S. Rodriguez, T. Cornet, A. Lucas, J. Radebaugh, L. Maltagliati, S. Le Mouélic, A. Solomonidou, A. Coustenis, M. Hirtzig, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, and C. Sotin. Titan’s Equatorial Belt: Composition and Geomorphology from Cassini/VIMS and RADAR data, under review in J. Geophys. Res. Planets.

    Daubar I. et al. (S. Rodriguez and A. Lucas included), Impact-Seismic Investigations of the InSight Mission, in preparation.

    Spiga A. et al. (S. Rodriguez and A. Lucas included), Atmospheric Science with InSight, in preparation.

    Golombek M. et al. (S. Rodriguez and A. Lucas included), InSight Geology Investigation, in preparation.

     

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