F1a : Earth as a living planet: from early ages to present dynamics

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The description and understanding of the dynamics of the solid Earth, as well as its interactions with the hydrosphere and the biosphere, requires quantitative constraints on the processes at work. The theory of plate tectonics, the principles of geochemical dynamics applied to tracking of surface and deep Earth processes, as well as pioneers studies of bio-mineral interactions are examples of achievements obtained at IPGP during the last decades. However, as good as the understanding of present solid and surface Earth dynamics is, its initiation during the early ages of the Earth remains poorly constrained and understood. To fill the gap between the present and pristine dynamics of the Earth, specific sub-projects linked to the exploration of the proto-Earth and to the study of modern analogues will be developed conjointly. During the first two years of Frontier Project 1, effort will be devoted at 1) performing a new drilling operation of a key stratigraphic succession of the Archaen Eon and 2) constraining the rates and regimes of deformation over a range of spatial scales along the Chiliean Margin.

  • Project 1

    The co-evolution of Life and Oxygen on early Earth

    The Turee Creek Group Drilling Project (TCDP), Western Australia



    The objective of this Project Frontier hosted at IPGP is to characterize the evolving biosphere and the changing environments across the 2.45 to 2.32 Ga old Great Oxidation Event. To achieve this goal, we will obtain pristine drill cores of key sedimentary successions from the Turee Creek Group in Western Australia and develop an integrated analytical approach on the same samples at multiple scales (from the microfossil-scale to the sedimentary basin level). The strong focus on linking multiple scales of observations, sedimentary and metamorphic history, and the use of state-of-the-art mineralogical and geochemical techniques should provide new insights into the history of life and oxygen on early Earth. Results from the project could also help to explain the global atmosphere-related changes in sedimentary mineralization that occurred during the Paleoproterozoic.



    The principal aims of the project, to investigate vertical stratigraphic changes in mineral and rock geochemistry, organo-metallic assemblages, seawater precipitates, and changes in the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere between 2.45 and 2.32 Ga, should improve our understanding of the nature and timing of the “Great Oxidation Event”. We will obtain drill core of key sedimentary successions of 2.45 to 2.2 Ga old Turee Creek Group, Western Australia, and perform a systematic petrographical study—thin-section microscopy and SEM investigations and magnetic microscopy at high stratigraphical resolution to determine depositional environment, discover microbial fabrics and textures (stromatolites, etc.) and control for diagenesis and metamorphism. We will perform U-Pb and Re-Os geochronology of selected volcanoclastic and terrigenous sedimentary rocks in order to obtain provenance information and to define their maximum depositional ages. We will perform X-ray core scanning and trace element geochemistry of a large suite of samples, and use this information to target S, Fe, Mo, Cr, Cd and C and N stable isotope analysis both in situ and using powders of selected micro-domains extracted from the rock samples. We will investigate BIF and stromatolites to constrain the sinks of bio-essential metals released from oxidative weathering and utilized by primary producers.


    Turee Creek.jpg

    Figure 1 : Geological Map of Western Australia showing the drilling core site of Turee Creek



    The Turee Creek Group was choosen because it represents the only continuous stratigraphic sedimentary section worldwide hosting the Great Oxydation Event and the first global glaciation (Huronian glaciation), thus providing a unique opportunity to examine the nature, rate, and duration of the rise of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. The Turee Creek Group represents the uppermost section of the Hamersley Basin. It has a total thickness of about 4 km, shallowing upwards from banded iron formation (BIF) of the underlying Boolgeeda Iron Fm. forming the top of the Hamersley Group, to clastic sedimentary rocks, glacial diamictites of the Meteorite Bore Member and stromatolitic carbonates of the Kazput Formation.



    Figure 2: Stratigraphic section of the Turee Creek Group. Potential drilling sites identified include the contact between the Boolgeeda and the Kungari Fromations, The Meteorite Bore Member diamictites and a section of the Kazput Formation.

    Project 2

    Active deformation and earthquake activity along the Andean subduction zone in Chile

    Coordinators: R. Armijo (IPG Paris, France), R. Lacassin (IPG Paris), N. Shapiro (IPG Paris), J.P. Vilotte (IPG Paris)

    International collaborations: Universidad de Chile (J. Campos and G. Vargas), Universidad Católica del Norte (G. Gonzalez), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) Potsdam (O. Oncken), University Potsdam (M. Strecker)

    The Andean subduction zone in Chile, associated with the fast convergence of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate, is one of the most active in the world as attested by the Andes, the largest mountain belt – and high plateau – systems of our living planet, and by the associated seismic activity with four mega earthquakes and tsunamis in the last 120 years. Scientific questions today are related to the understanding of the transient and permanent deformation processes, their variations and interactions, along the Chilean subduction zone, that lead to the occurrence of large subduction earthquakes and tsunamis, and to the building of the Andes. A critical step, of important augmented economic and societal implications, is to integrate these different spatial and temporal scales within a geodynamic model.

    Séismes Chili.jpg

    The Andean subduction zone in Chile and the associated large subduction earthquakes: the earthquakes rupture area is indicated by the size of the ellipses; and the mean rate and direction of the convergence between the Nazca and the South American plate is indicated by the arrow. The main barriers associated to the segmentation the subduction zone are pointed in this map

    To address these questions, innovative data analysis and data modelling methods are required to exploit the massive data generated by the detailed tectonic and paleo-seismology field studies, the high-resolution observation systems integrating geodesy and seismology monitoring networks operated by the International Associated Laboratory Montessus de Ballore (https://www.lia-mb.net), the French-Chilean initiative between the CNRS-INSU and the Universidad de Chile (Santiago), in which IPGP is one of the main partners, and by the spatial observation systems (InSAR).

    The first objectives are :

    1. Detailed analysis of the February 27, 2010 offshore Maule (Mw 8.6, Central Chile) earthquake, in terms of the rupture process, associated crustal deformation and crustal property changes, of its implication in term of the seismic hazard in the northern part of Central Chile – in particular the Valparaiso region. This analysis will exploit the extensive seismological (at regional and global scales), geodetic and geological data that are today available with unprecedented accuracy, before, during and after the event. Lessons to be learned from the offshore Maule earthquake will have important implication and applications for further study of the seismic hazard in northern Chile.
    2. Study of the permanent deformation, associated to the growth of the Andean orogeny by tectonic shortening, measured over the 103-107 yr time scale, which is barely longer than the seismic cycle for subduction earthquakes. We want to characterise the evolution of the west-vergent geological structures in relation with the subduction processes and to construct a mechanical model involving tectonic accretion at the subduction interface consistent with the tectonic and morphological evolution of the Central Andes and the Altiplano. This will imply new field observations that will be collected during this project.

    This project is supporting a 1-year postdoc, attributed to Natalia Poiata, and a number of tectonic field studies, sampling and dating.

  • ldapjpegphoto_0.jpg Magali Ader Carbon, Oxygen, Azote, stable isotopes studies to calibrate the isotopiques signatures on modern sedimentary rocks as a proxy of ancient sediments

    Identification of diagenetic phases that have altered paleo-environmental signatures

    Reconstitution of Precambrian paleo-environment and paleo-ecosystem

    Bureau 513
    +33 1 83 95 75 06
    ldapjpegphoto (2)_0.jpg Jean Besse Internal and external dynamic reconstitution with paleo-magnetique tools

    Ancient Gedoynamo; Intensity and Inversion of terrestrial magnetic field

    Plate tectonic

    Large drift of Earth axis as indication of mantle convection


    Bureau 136

    +33 1 83 95 74 87


    Busigny_0.jpg Vincent Busigny Fe, C and N stable isotopes stables in ancient rocks in order to reconstruct the paleo environment and paleo-ecosystem conditions

    Studies of aquatic anoxic and ferruginous system as Pavin lake (Massif Central) as a modern proxy of Archean ocean
    Isotopic signatures of biogeochemical process from the water column to the sediment

    Bureau 515

    +33 1 83 95 74 34


    cartigny_0.jpg Pierre Cartigny S (36S/32S, 33S/32S, 34S/32S) and O (17O/16O, 18O/16O) isotopic compositions analysis to reconstruct the paleo-environmental conditions and atmospheric composition of the Archean and Neoproterozoique IPGP


    Bureau 511


    +33 1 83 95 75 11



    Fluteau_0.jpg Frédéric Fluteau Pre-Quaternary climatic changes studies with numerical modelling of climate, C biogeochemical cyce and continental weathering


    Quantification of processes controlling Earth climate.

    Reconstitution of physical and chemical evolution of fluid reservoir of the Archean with 3D climate and geochemistry modelling


    Bureau 128
    +33 1 83 95 74 92

    gaillardet_0.jpg Jérôme Gaillardet Identification of isotopic, mineralogical and geochemical signature of water and river sediments produced by interaction with sulfuric acid

    Interpretation of ancient sediment with important chemical weathering rate

    Possible isotopic proxy Mo, W, Cr exploration in Precambrian rocks

    Bureau 413
    +33 1 83 95 74 83
    Lacassin_0.jpg Robin Lacassin IPGP
    Bureau 216
    +33 1 83 95 76 24
    guil.lehir__0.jpg Guillaume Le Hir Pre-Quaternary climatic changes studies with numerical modelling of climate, C biogeochemical cyce and continental weathering


    Quantification of processes controlling Earth climate.

    Reconstitution of physical and chemical evolution of fluid reservoir of the Archean with 3D climate and geochemistry modelling



    Bureau 130


    +33 1 83 95 74 93



    Johanna_0.jpg Johanna Marin-Carbonne Metal stable isotope analysis to better understand the possible biological and redox signatures in ancient sediment

    Petrographical and mineralogical study of drillcore and in situ analyses of stable isotope

    Bureau 167
    +33 1 83 95 73 89
    Philippot_0.jpg Pascal Philippot Deep Biosphere and Origin of Life IPGP
    Bureau 141
    +33 1 83 95 73 87
    Poiata_0.jpg Natalia Poiata Analysis of seismicity in Chile: aftershock sequence of the 2010 Maule earthquake and seismicity in North Chile after the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake.

    Development of new array-based methods for detection and localization of seismic events.

    Bureau 324
    +33 1 83 95 75 85
    shapiro_0.jpg Nikolai Shapiro IPGP
    Bureau 328
    +33 1 83 95 75 78
    VanZuilen_0.jpg Mark Van Zuilen Structural, chemical and isotopic characterization of possible biological structure present in ancient rocks, microfossils in chemical sediments micro laminations in stromatolithes and minerals in hydrothermal environment

    Characterization of life signatures in archean rocks, structure of metamorphosed carbone by Raman spectroscopy and FIB-TEM

    In-situ analysis of isotopic and elemental compositions of organic material and associated minerals (δ13C, N/C- ratio, δ34S-Δ33S).


    Bureau 167
    +33 1 83 95 75 27
    Vilotte_0.jpg Jean-Pierre Vilotte
    Mechanical and numerical modeling of earthquake rupture dynamics
    Numerical simulation of wave propagation in complex geological systems
    Coherent interferometry imaging of extended earthquake sources
    Computational physics and parallel computing
    Bureau 167
    +33 1 83 95 75 83



    Sedimentolgy, trace element geochemistry

    Development of new array-based methods for detection and localization of seismic events.

    Wafa Abouchami Isotope Geochemistry IPGP


    In addition to IPGP collaborators, several colleagues from France, USA, Australia and Canada are involved in the TCDP Project. These include :

    • Stefan Lalonde, University of Brest
    • Christophe Thomazo, Emmanuelle Vennin and Jean-François Buoncristiani, Dijon University
    • Kevin Lepot, University of Lille
    • Martin Van Kranendonk, University of New South Wakes
    • Kurt Konhauser, University of Alberta
    • Noah Planavsky, Yale University


    The TCDP was performed during April and May 2013. Three drilling sites were chosen in three different stratigraphic intervals of the Turee Creek Group.

    – TCDP1 (- 22°48’31.00″S – 116°47’15.90″E) intercepts the contact between the underlying banded iron formation of the Boolgeeda Formation (Hamersley Group), and the overlying Kungara formation of the Turee Creek Gp.

    – TCDP2 (22°50’49.70″S – 116°52’27.70″E) intercepts the base of diamictites of the Meteorite Bore Member and part of the underlying mudstone, siltstone and carbonate-bearing stromatolite of the Kungara Formation.

    – TCDP3 (22°52’15.90″S – 116°56’46.40″E) intercepts the base of the Kazput Formation and underlying Koolbye quartzites.

    Total depth of drilling is 746 m, with 292 m RC collar and 454 m NQ diamond drilling.

    The drilling research team consisted of Pascal Philippot and Elodie Muller (IPGP) and Martin Van Kranendonk (University of New South Wales). Paul Van Loenhout of “Mount Magnet” and his crew are thanked for their professional work and enthusiasm in obtaining the drillcore.


    Outcome directly supported by Labex UnivEarths

    Peer Reviewed articles


    Philippot, P., Van Zuilen, M., and Rollion-bard, C., 2012. Variations in atmospheric sulphur chemistry on early Earth linked to volcanic activity. Nature Geoscience 5, 668-674

    Kumar, A., Nagaraju, E., Besse, J., and Rao, B., 2012. New age, geochemical and paleomagnetic data on a 2.21 Ga dyke swarm from south India: Constraints on Paleoproterozoic reconstruction. Precamb. Res. 220, 123-138.


    Teitler, Y., Le Hir, G., Fluteau, F., Philippot, P., Donnadieu, Y., 2013. Investigating the Paleoproterozoic glaciations with 3-D climate modeling. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 395, 71-80.


    François, C., Philippot, P., Rey, P., Rubatto, E., 2014. Burial and exhumation during Archean sagduction in the East Pilbara Granite-GreenstoneTerrane. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 396, 235-251.

    Hardisty, D., Lu, Z., Planavsky, N., Bekker, A., Philippot, P., Zhou, X., Lyons, T., 2014. An iodine record of Paleoproterozoic surface ocean oxygenation. Geology 42, 619–622.

    Pecoits, E., Smith, M.L., Catling, D.C., Philippot, P., Kappler, A., Konhauser, K.O., 2014. Atmospheric Hydrogen Peroxide and Eoarchean Iron Formations. Geobiology, DOI: 10.1111/gbi.12116.

    Sforna, M.C., Philippot, P., somogyi, A., van Zuilen, M.A., Medoudji, K., Nitschke, W., Schoepp-Cottenet, B., Visscher, P., 2014. Evidence for arsenic metabolism and cycling by microorganisms 2.7 billion years ago. Nature Geoscience, 7, 811–815.

    Sforna, M.C., van Zuilen, M.A., Philippot, P., 2014. Structural characterization by Raman hyperstractral mapping of organic carbon in the 3.46 billion-year-old Apex chert, Western Australia. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 114, 18–33.

    van Zuilen, M.A., Philippot, P., Lepland, A., Whitehouse, M.J., 2014. Sulfur Isotope Mass-Independent Fractionation in Impact Deposits of the 3.2 Billion-year-old Mapepe Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 142, 429-441.


    Amor, M., Busigny, V., Durand-Dubief, M., Tharaud, M., Ona-Nguema, G., Gélabert, A., Alphandéry, E., Menguy, N., Benedetti, M., Cgebbi, I., Guyot, F., 2015. Chemical signature of magnetotactic bacteria. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1414112112

    Carlut, J., Isambert, A., Bouquerel, H., Pecoits, P., Philippot, P., Vennin, E., Ader, M., Thomazo, C., Buoncristiani, J.-F., Baton, F., Muller, E., Deldicque, D., 2015. Low Temperature Magnetic Properties of the Late Archean Boolgeeda Iron Formation (Hamersley Group, Western Australia): Environmental Implications. Frontiers in Earth Science. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2015.00018

    Teitler, Y., Philippot, P., Gérard, M., Le Hir, G., Fluteau, F., Ader, M., 2015. Ubiquitous occurrence of basaltic-derived paleosols in the Late Archaean Fortescue Group, Western Australia. Precamb. Res. 267, 1-27.

    Marin-Carbonne, J., Remusat, L., Sforna, M.C., Thomazo, C., Cartigny, P., Philippot, P. Sulfur isotopes signal of nanopyrites enclosed in 2.7 billions year old stromatolitic organic remains reveal microbial sulfate reduction and diagenetic processes in closed system. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., submited

    Morag, N., Williford, K.H., Kitajima, K., Philippot, P., Van Kranendonk, M.J., Lepot, K., Valley, J.W. Microstructure -specific carbon isotopic signature of organic matter from ~3.5 Ga cherts of the Pilbara Craton support biologic origin. Precamb. Res., submited

    International Conferences

    Ader, M., Thomazo, C., Baton, F., Muller, E., Chaduteau, C., Cartigny, P., Vennin, E., Buoncristiani, J.F., Van Kranendonk, M., Philippot, P., 2015., Paired carbon isotope from three key intervals of the Turee Creek Group, Pilbara Craton, Australia, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Busigny, V., Marin-Carbonne, J., Muller, E., Cartigny, P., Assayag, N., Rollion-Bard, C., Philippot, P., 2015. Fe and S isotope constraints on redox conditions associated with barite deposits from the 3.2 Ga Mapepe Formation (South Africa), Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Caquineau T, François C, Paquette JL, Marin-Carbonne J (2014). 24ième RST, Pau, October 2014

    Caquineau T, François C, Paquette JL, M. Van Kranendonk, Philippot, P. 2015, U-Pb monazite dating of the Turee Creek Group sedimentary succession: implications on the rise of oxygen and glacial events, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Daye M, Sforna MC, Philippot P, Somogyi A, Van Zuilen M, Medjoubi K, (2014), 24ième RST, Pau, October 2014

    Avila, J., Ireland, T.R., Holden, P., Philippot, P., 2015. In situ multiple sulfur isotope analysis of pyrites with SHRIMP-SI: deconvolving complex depositional and post-depositional processes. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Marin-Carbonne J, Muller E, Busigny V, Rollion-Bard C, Philippot P (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p 23

    Marin-Carbonne J, Muller E, Miot, J, Busigny V, Rollion-Bard C, Philippot P (2014), Goldschmidt, Sacramento

    Marin-Carbonne J, Remusat, L., Sforna, M., Thomazo, C., Cartigny, P., Philippot P., 2015. Evidence of microbial sulfate reduction in nanopyrites enclosed in 2.7 billions year old stromatolitic organic remains, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Muller E, Philippot P, Rollion-Bard C, Sarma DS (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p.1805

    Muller, E, Philippot P, Rollion-Bard C, Cartigny P, 24ième RST, Pau, October 2014

    Muller, E., Philippot, P., Rollion-Bard, C., Cartigny, P., 2015. Deconvolution of the sulfur cycle in Archean sulfate deposits using quadruple sulfur isotope (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) analyses. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Pecoits, E., S.V. Lalonde, M. Van Kranendonk, P. Philippot (2015). Trace Element Chemostratigraphy of the Paleoproterozoic Turee Creek and Uppermost Hamersley Groups, Western Australia. Goldschmidt Conf, Prague.

    Lalonde, S.V., E. Pecoits, A. Beaumaris, K.O. Konhauser, P. Philippot (2015). A High Resolution Record of Paleoproterozoic Environmental Change: XRF Core Scan Data from the Turee Creek Drilling Project (TCDP), Hamersley and Turee Creek Groups, Western Australia. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Pereira A., Thomazo C, Vennin E, Buoncristiani JF, Van Kranendonk M, Philippot P, 24ième RST, Pau, october 2014.

    Philippot P, Van Zuilen M, Rollion-Bard C (2012), Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna, p 3644

    Philippot P, Van Zuilen M, Rollion-Bard-C (2012), Goldschmidt Conference, Montreal

    Philippot P, Teitler Y, Gerard M, Cartigny P, Muller E, Assayag N, LeHir G, Fluteau F (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p 76

    Philippot P, Van Kranendonk M, Thomazo, C., Muller E, Marin-Carbonne J, Lalonde S, Vennin E, Buonchristiani JF, Baton F, Caquineau T, Pereira A, Pecoits E, Planavsky N, Ader M, Isambert A, Bouquerel H, Busigny V, Carlut J, Cartigny P, Lepot K, 24ième RST, Pau, October 2014.

    Philippot P, Avila, J.N., Baton, F., Cartigny, P., Irealand, T.R., Muller, E., Rollion-Bard, C., Van Kranendonk, 2015. Multiple sulfur isotopes from the 2.45-2.2 Ga old Turee Creek Group and the rise of atmospheric oxygen, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Sforna MC, Philippot P, van Zuilen M, Somogyi A, Medjoubi K, Visscher PT & Dupraz C, (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p

    Sforna MC, Philippot P, Somogyi A, van Zuilen M, Medjoubi K, Schoepp-Cothenet B., Nitschke W., Visscher P. 2015. Arsenic metabolism and cycling in early Earth oceans. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Teitler Y., Philippot, P., Gerard M., Le Hir G., Fluteau F., Ader, M. , 2015. Direct evidence for significant oxygen in the Late Archean atmosphere from paleosols of the Fortescue Group, Western Australia, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    van Zuilen M, Philippot P, Whitehouse M & Lepland A, (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p

    Visscher, P., Farias, M., Contrapas, M., Novoa-Cortez, F., Rasuk, C., Patterson, Philippot, P., Sforna M., Gallagher, K., Dupraz, C., 2014. Geol. Soc. Amer. Abs. Vol., 1922, 2014


    News & Views

    Nature Geoscience, Sept. 2012, Unexpectedly abiotic, Bozwell Wing, 5, 598-599

    Nature Geoscience, Oct. 2014, Arsenic and Primordial Life, Tom Kulp, 7, 785–786


    Popular science and extension to the general public

    CNRS, International Magazine, April 2012, « The Origins of Life», 25, p 21-23

    La Recherche, October 2012, Des éruptions gigantesques sur la Terre Primitive, 468, 16-17.

    CNRS, Paris 9 aout 2012, De gigantesques panaches volcaniques ont recouvert la Terre à trois reprises entre 3,5 et 3,2 milliards d’années http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/terre-solide/origine-evolution-histoire/de-gigantesques-panaches-volcaniques-ont-recouvert-la-terre-

    CNRS, 26 October, 2014, Des micro-organismes métabolisaient l’arsenic dans des lacs salins il y a plus de 2,7 milliards d’années http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/5044

    Festival Pariscience, 7 october 2013, Invited conference after projection of the movie « Comment faire pousser une planète ? » Museum d’Histoire Naturelle.

    Exobiology school, Origin of life on Earth, Teich, 2014


    Conference and session organized

    P. Philippot, Chair of the theme “Early Earth – Earth’s history before the Phanerozoic” of the 2015 Goldschmidt Conference, Prague. (co-chair Y. Ueno, TIT and T. Rushmer, Macquarie University ; 6 sessions organized)

    N. Planavsky, D. Catling, K. Konhauser, Z. Lu, P. Philippot, convenors of the Session « Precambrian Redox Evolution » of the 2015 Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.


    Outcome not directly supported by Labex UnivEarths but connected to the project

    Peer Reviewed Articles.

    Marty, B., Zimmermann, L., Pujol, M., Burgess, R., Philippot, P., 2013. Nitrogen isotopic composition and partial pressure in the Archean atmosphere from analysis of pristine inclusion fluids. Science 342, 101-104.

    Pujol, M., Marty, B., Burgess, R., Turner, G., Philippot, P., 2013. Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics. Nature 498, 87-90.

    Le Hir, G., Teitler, Y., Fluteau, F., Donnadieu, Y., 2014. The faint young Sun problem revisited with a 3-D climate–carbon model – Part 1, Clim. Past 10, 697–713.


    News and Views

    CNRS, 6 juin 2013, L’essentiel de la croûte continentale formée entre 3,8 et 2,7 milliards d’années, http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/4391

    CNRS, 22 septembre 2013, L’atmosphère entre 3,8 et 2,4 milliards d’années, http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/4503

    Science Daily, 4 October 2013, Climate Puzzle Over Origins of Life On Earth, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131004090307.htm?utm_sour


    Popular Science

    La Recherche, December 2013 Des bulles d’eau révèlent l’atmosphère de la Terre primitive, 482, 8-9.