F1a : Earth as a living planet: from early ages to present dynamics

> Read the articles connected to the project.




    The objective of the WP F1-1 is to move forward our understanding on the mechanisms, causes and consequences of the rise of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Our aim is to characterize the evolving biosphere and the changing environments (glaciogenic events) across the 2.45 to 2.2 Ga old Great Oxidation Event.

    To achieve this goal, we obtained pristine drill cores of key sedimentary successions from the Turee Creek Group in Western Australia and develop new means to image and analyze chemical (major and trace elements) and isotope proxies (S, C, N, Fe, Mo, Cr) on the same samples at multiple scales (from the microfossil-scale to the sedimentary basin level).

    The strong focus of linking multiple scales of observations, sedimentary history, and the use of state-of-theart mineralogical and geochemical techniques allowed identifying key insights into the history of life and oxygen during the Archean-Paleoproterozoic transition.

    The co-evolution of Life and Oxygen on early Earth

    The Turee Creek Group Drilling Project (TCDP), Western Australia




    The principal aims of the project, to investigate vertical stratigraphic changes in mineral and rock geochemistry, organo-metallic assemblages, seawater precipitates, and changes in the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere between 2.45 and 2.32 Ga, was to improve our understanding of the nature and timing of the “Great Oxidation Event”. We obtained drill core of key sedimentary successions of 2.45 to 2.2 Ga old Turee Creek Group, Western Australia, and perform a systematic petrographical study—thin-section microscopy and SEM investigations and magnetic microscopy at high stratigraphical resolution to determine depositional environment, discover microbial fabrics and textures (stromatolites, etc.) and control for diagenesis and metamorphism. We performed U-Pb and Re-Os geochronology of selected volcanoclastic and terrigenous sedimentary rocks in order to obtain provenance information and to define their maximum depositional ages. We perform X-ray core scanning and trace element geochemistry of a large suite of samples, and use this information to target S, Fe, Mo, Cr, Cd and C and N stable isotope analysis both in situ and using powders of selected micro-domains extracted from the rock samples. We investigate BIF and stromatolites to constrain the sinks of bio-essential metals released from oxidative weathering and utilized by primary producers.


    Turee Creek.jpg

    Figure 1 : Geological Map of Western Australia showing the drilling core site of Turee Creek



    The Turee Creek Group was choosen because it represents the only continuous stratigraphic sedimentary section worldwide hosting the Great Oxydation Event and the first global glaciation (Huronian glaciation), thus providing a unique opportunity to examine the nature, rate, and duration of the rise of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. The Turee Creek Group represents the uppermost section of the Hamersley Basin. It has a total thickness of about 4 km, shallowing upwards from banded iron formation (BIF) of the underlying Boolgeeda Iron Fm. forming the top of the Hamersley Group, to clastic sedimentary rocks, glacial diamictites of the Meteorite Bore Member and stromatolitic carbonates of the Kazput Formation.



    Figure 2: Stratigraphic section of the Turee Creek Group. Potential drilling sites identified include the contact between the Boolgeeda and the Kungari Fromations, The Meteorite Bore Member diamictites and a section of the Kazput Formation.





    WP leader Pascal Philippot IPGP Professor, University Paris Diderot
    WP co-leader Jean Besse IPGP Physicien, IPGP
    WP co-leader Wafa Abouchami IPGP Postdoc Labex UnivEarths
    WP member Magali Ader IPGP Professeur, IPGP
    WP member Janaina Avila ANU Postdoc, ANU
    WP member Jean Louis Birck IPGP DR, CNRS
    WP member Vincent Busigny IPGP Professor, University Paris Diderot
    WP member Tom Caquineau IPGP PhD, University Paris Diderot
    WP member Julie Carlut IPGP CR, CNRS
    WP member Pierre Cartigny IPGP DR, CNRS
    WP member Marc Chaussidon IPGP DR, CNRS
    WP member Chen Cheng Beijing University/IPGP PhD, Univ. of Mining and Technology
    WP member Trevor Ireland ANU Professor, ANU
    WP member Aude Isambert IPGP MCF, University Paris Diderot
    WP member Bryan Killingsworth Institut Européen de la Mer/IPGP Postdoc Marie Curie
    WP member Kurt Konhauser University of Alberta Professor
    WP member Stefan Lalonde Institut Europ.en de la Mer CR, CNRS
    WP member Kevin Lepot Universit. de Lille MCF, University Lille
    WP member Pascale Louvat IPGP IR, CNRS
    WP member Manuel Moreira IPGP Professor, IPGP
    WP member Frédéric Moynnier IPGP Professor, University Paris Diderot
    WP member Elodie Muller IPGP PhD, University Paris Diderot
    WP member Jean-Louis Paquette Universit. de Clermont-Ferrand DR, CNRS
    WP member Ernesto Pecoits Technological University of Uruguay Ass. Professor, UTEC
    WP member Noah Planavsky Yale University Ass. Professor, Yale University
    WP member Claire Rollion-Bard IPGP IR, CNRS
    WP member Marie Thobie Institut Européen de la Mer PhD, IEM
    WP member Christophe Thomazo Universit. de Dijon MCF, University Dijon
    WP member Emmanuelle Vennin Universit. de Dijon Professor, University Dijon
    WP member Xiangly Wang Yale University Postdoctorate, Yale University
    WP member Tyler Warchola University of Alberta PhD, University of Alberta




    This project is now coming to completion. A vast majority of analyses have been performed and several publications are either under review or in preparation . Three items remain underway. These include Mo isotope analysis on carbonate to be finalized in Brest, Cr isotope analysis on Banded Iron Formation (BIF) to be finalized at IPGP  and Fe isotope coupled to magnetic study to explore potential biogenicity of magnetite from the Boolgeeda Banded Iron Formation at IPGP. The latter still requires specific support for analytical work.


    Magnetite geochemical and magnetic signatures as a proxy for early traces of life.

    During year 2017, iron isotope measurements were performed on bulk sedimentary rocks from the cores TCDP-1, -2 and -3 (Mensah Adjei, Master thesis). The data show that Fe isotope composition is mostly detrital in shales and carbonates from T2 and T3, but a large range of variation is found in Banded Iron Formation from the Boolgeeda Formation (T1).


    In addition to the support for analytical work, we have a number of important results that are currently in review or to be submitted to high impact journals. These include:

    • Sulfur Isotope evidence for a protracted history of oscillating atmospheric oxygen levels between 2.45 and 2.25 Gyr ago.
    • Multiple S- and O-isotope analysis of sulfate (CAS and barite, BaSO4) to refine the mechanism and timing of the rise of O2.





    • 1. X-­‐ray fluorescence core scanning at high stratigraphic resolution (Lalonde et al., in prep.)
    • 2. Stratigraphic log completed (Philippot et al., 2018, Nature Communications)
    • 3. Major and trace element chemistry completed (Warchola et al., 2018, Precambrian Research)
    • 4. C isotopes chemostratigraphy at high resolution (Ader et al., in prep)
    • 5. S isotope analysis and Re-­‐Os dating of sulfides (Philippot et al., 2018, Nature Communications)
    • 6. In situ U-­‐Pb dating of monazite and zircons (Caquineau et al., 2018, Precamb. Res.)
    • 7. In situ Hf-­‐isotope analysis of zircons to reconstruct the sediment provenance (Caquineau et al., in prep.)
    • 8. Fe isotope analysis of magnetite separate from BIFs samples showing the two Verwey temperatures. The goal is to identify Magnetotactic Bacteria in the ancient rock record (a Master student hired on the analytical protocol)
    • 9. Coupled N and Cd isotopes analysis (Cheng et al., in review at GCA; Abouchami et al., in prep;)
    • 10. Mo isotope systematics of Kazput carbonates (Thoby et al., in prep)
    • 11. Multiple O-­‐isotope analysis (16O, 17O, 18O) of Carbonate Associated Sulfate and barite (Killingsworth et al., in review at Nature Communications)
    • 12. Multiple S-­‐isotope analysis (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) of Carbonate Associated Sulfate (Killingsworth et al., in prep)
    • 13. Cr isotope analysis (Fred Moynier, in prep)
    • 14. U isotope analysis (Wang et al., GCA 2018



    Outcome directly supported by Labex UnivEarths


    Peer Reviewed articles



    Philippot, P., Van Zuilen, M., and Rollion-bard, C., 2012. Variations in atmospheric sulphur chemistry on early Earth linked to volcanic activity. Nature Geoscience 5, 668-674

    Kumar, A., Nagaraju, E., Besse, J., and Rao, B., 2012. New age, geochemical and paleomagnetic data on a 2.21 Ga dyke swarm from south India: Constraints on Paleoproterozoic reconstruction. Precamb. Res. 220, 123-138.


    Teitler, Y., Le Hir, G., Fluteau, F., Philippot, P., Donnadieu, Y., 2013. Investigating the Paleoproterozoic glaciations with 3-D climate modeling. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 395, 71-80.


    François, C., Philippot, P., Rey, P., Rubatto, E., 2014. Burial and exhumation during Archean sagduction in the East Pilbara Granite-GreenstoneTerrane. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 396, 235-251.

    Hardisty, D., Lu, Z., Planavsky, N., Bekker, A., Philippot, P., Zhou, X., Lyons, T., 2014. An iodine record of Paleoproterozoic surface ocean oxygenation. Geology 42, 619–622.

    Pecoits, E., Smith, M.L., Catling, D.C., Philippot, P., Kappler, A., Konhauser, K.O., 2014. Atmospheric Hydrogen Peroxide and Eoarchean Iron Formations. Geobiology, DOI: 10.1111/gbi.12116.

    Sforna, M.C., Philippot, P., somogyi, A., van Zuilen, M.A., Medoudji, K., Nitschke, W., Schoepp-Cottenet, B., Visscher, P., 2014. Evidence for arsenic metabolism and cycling by microorganisms 2.7 billion years ago. Nature Geoscience, 7, 811–815.

    Sforna, M.C., van Zuilen, M.A., Philippot, P., 2014. Structural characterization by Raman hyperstractral mapping of organic carbon in the 3.46 billion-year-old Apex chert, Western Australia. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 114, 18–33.

    van Zuilen, M.A., Philippot, P., Lepland, A., Whitehouse, M.J., 2014. Sulfur Isotope Mass-Independent Fractionation in Impact Deposits of the 3.2 Billion-year-old Mapepe Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 142, 429-441.


    Amor, M., Busigny, V., Durand-Dubief, M., Tharaud, M., Ona-Nguema, G., Gélabert, A., Alphandéry, E., Menguy, N., Benedetti, M., Cgebbi, I., Guyot, F., 2015. Chemical signature of magnetotactic bacteria. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1414112112

    Carlut, J., Isambert, A., Bouquerel, H., Pecoits, P., Philippot, P., Vennin, E., Ader, M., Thomazo, C., Buoncristiani, J.-F., Baton, F., Muller, E., Deldicque, D., 2015. Low Temperature Magnetic Properties of the Late Archean Boolgeeda Iron Formation (Hamersley Group, Western Australia): Environmental Implications. Frontiers in Earth Science. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/feart.2015.00018

    Teitler, Y., Philippot, P., Gérard, M., Le Hir, G., Fluteau, F., Ader, M., 2015. Ubiquitous occurrence of basaltic-derived paleosols in the Late Archaean Fortescue Group, Western Australia. Precamb. Res. 267, 1-27.

    Marin-Carbonne, J., Remusat, L., Sforna, M.C., Thomazo, C., Cartigny, P., Philippot, P. Sulfur isotopes signal of nanopyrites enclosed in 2.7 billions year old stromatolitic organic remains reveal microbial sulfate reduction and diagenetic processes in closed system. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., submited

    Morag, N., Williford, K.H., Kitajima, K., Philippot, P., Van Kranendonk, M.J., Lepot, K., Valley, J.W. Microstructure -specific carbon isotopic signature of organic matter from ~3.5 Ga cherts of the Pilbara Craton support biologic origin. Precamb. Res., submited


    Busigny, V., Marin-Carbonne, J., Muller, E., Cartigny, P., Rollion-Bard, C., Assayag, N. and Philippot, P. (2017) Iron and sulfur isotope constraints on redox conditions associated with barite deposits from the 3.2 Ga Mapepe Formation (Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 210, 247–266.


    Fadel A., Lepot K., Busigny V, Addad A, Troadec D., (2017). Iron mineralization and taphonomy of microfossils of the 2.452.21 Ga Turee Creek Group, Western Australia. Precamb. Res., 298, 530–551.


    Muller, E., Ader, M., Chaduteau, C., Cartigny, P., Baton, F. and Philippot, P. (2017) The use of chromium reduction analysis of organic carbon and inorganic sulfur isotope compositions in Archean rocks. Chem. Geol. 457, 68-74.


    Muller, E., Philippot, P., Rollion-Bard, C., Cartigny, P., Assayag, N., Marin-Carbonne, J., Ram Mohan, M. and Srinivasa Sarma, D. (2017) Primary sulfur isotope signatures preserved in high-grade Archean barite deposits of the Sargur Group, Dharwar Craton, India. Precamb. Res. 295, 38-47.


    Sforna, M.C., Daye, M., Philippot, P., somogyi, A., van Zuilen, M.A., Medjoubi, K., Gérard, M., Jamme, F., Du- praz, C., Braissant, O., Glunk, C. and Visscher, P. (2017) Patterns of metal distribution in hypersaline microbialites during early diagenesis: Implications for the fossil record. Geobiology 15, 259-279.


    Marin-Carbonne, J., Remusat, L., Sforna, M.C., Thomazo, C., Cartigny, P. and Philippot, P. (2018) Sulfur isotopes signal of nanopyrites enclosed in 2.7 billions year old stromatolitic organic remains reveal microbial sulfate reduction and diagenetic processes in closed system. Geobiology 16, 121-138.


    Caquineau, T., Paquette, J.-L. and Philippot, P. (2018) U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology of the Turee Creek Group, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia: timing and correlation of the Paleoproterozoic glaciations. Precamb. Res. 307, 34-50.


    Philippot, P., Ávila, J., Killingsworth, B., Tessalina, S., Baton, F., Caquineau, T., Muller, E., Pecoits, E., Cartigny, P., Lalonde, S., Ireland, T., Thomazo, C., Van Kranendonk, M.J. and Busigny, V. (in press) Globally asynchronous sulphur isotope signals require re-definition of the Great Oxidation Event. Nature Communications.




    Philippot P., Avila J., Killingsworth B., Tessalina S., Baton F., Caquineau T., Muller E., Pecoits E., Cartigny P., Lalonde S., Ireland T., Thomazo C., van Kranendonk M., Busigny V. (2018) Globally asynchronous sulphur isotope signals require redefinition of the Great Oxidation Event. Nature Communications 9, 2245, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-­018-­04621-

    Caquineau T., Paquette J.-L., Philippot P. (2018) U-­Pb detrital zircon geochronology of the Turee Creek Group, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia: Timing and correlation of the Paleoproterozoic glaciations. Precambrian Research 307, 34-­‐50.

    Philippot, P., Rollion-Bard, C. and Muller, E. (2018) Origin of paleoarchean sulfate deposits. In: Van Kranendonk, M.J., Bennett, V.C., Hoffman, J.E. (Eds.), Earth’s Oldest Rocks, 211-235. Elsevier.

    Warchola T., Lalonde S.V., Pecoits E., von Gunten K., Robbins L.J., Alessi D.S., Philippot P., Konhauser K.O. (2018) Petrology and geochemistry of the Boolgeeda Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. Precambrian Research 316, 155-173.

    Wang X., Planavsky N., Hofmann A. , Saupe E.E., De Corte B.P., Philippot P. et al. (2018) A Mesoarchean shift in uranium isotope systematics. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 238, 438-452.

    Busigny V., Goldbaum E., Planavsky N.J., Lechte M.A., Feng L., Lyons T.W. (2018) Origin of the Neoproterozoic Fulu Iron Formation, South China: Insights from iron isotopes and rare earth element patterns. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 242, 123-142.

    Busigny V., Chen J.B., Philippot P., Moynier F. (2018) Insight into hydrothermal and subduction processes from copper and nitrogen isotopes in oceanic metagabbros. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 498, 54-64.

    Amor M., Busigny V., Louvat P., Tharaud M., Gélabert A., Cartigny P., Carlut J., Isambert A., Durand-Dubief M., Ona-Nguema G., Alphandery E., Chebbi I., Guyot F. (2018) Iron uptake and magnetite biomineralization in the magnetotactic bactrium Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1: An iron isotope study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 232, 225-243.



    International Conferences


    Ader, M., Thomazo, C., Baton, F., Muller, E., Chaduteau, C., Cartigny, P., Vennin, E., Buoncristiani, J.F., Van Kranendonk, M., Philippot, P., 2015., Paired carbon isotope from three key intervals of the Turee Creek Group, Pilbara Craton, Australia, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Busigny, V., Marin-Carbonne, J., Muller, E., Cartigny, P., Assayag, N., Rollion-Bard, C., Philippot, P., 2015. Fe and S isotope constraints on redox conditions associated with barite deposits from the 3.2 Ga Mapepe Formation (South Africa), Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Caquineau T, François C, Paquette JL, Marin-Carbonne J (2014). 24ième RST, Pau, October 2014

    Caquineau T, François C, Paquette JL, M. Van Kranendonk, Philippot, P. 2015, U-Pb monazite dating of the Turee Creek Group sedimentary succession: implications on the rise of oxygen and glacial events, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Daye M, Sforna MC, Philippot P, Somogyi A, Van Zuilen M, Medjoubi K, (2014), 24ième RST, Pau, October 2014

    Avila, J., Ireland, T.R., Holden, P., Philippot, P., 2015. In situ multiple sulfur isotope analysis of pyrites with SHRIMP-SI: deconvolving complex depositional and post-depositional processes. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Marin-Carbonne J, Muller E, Busigny V, Rollion-Bard C, Philippot P (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p 23

    Marin-Carbonne J, Muller E, Miot, J, Busigny V, Rollion-Bard C, Philippot P (2014), Goldschmidt, Sacramento

    Marin-Carbonne J, Remusat, L., Sforna, M., Thomazo, C., Cartigny, P., Philippot P., 2015. Evidence of microbial sulfate reduction in nanopyrites enclosed in 2.7 billions year old stromatolitic organic remains, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Muller E, Philippot P, Rollion-Bard C, Sarma DS (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p.1805

    Muller, E, Philippot P, Rollion-Bard C, Cartigny P, 24ième RST, Pau, October 2014

    Muller, E., Philippot, P., Rollion-Bard, C., Cartigny, P., 2015. Deconvolution of the sulfur cycle in Archean sulfate deposits using quadruple sulfur isotope (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) analyses. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Pecoits, E., S.V. Lalonde, M. Van Kranendonk, P. Philippot (2015). Trace Element Chemostratigraphy of the Paleoproterozoic Turee Creek and Uppermost Hamersley Groups, Western Australia. Goldschmidt Conf, Prague.

    Lalonde, S.V., E. Pecoits, A. Beaumaris, K.O. Konhauser, P. Philippot (2015). A High Resolution Record of Paleoproterozoic Environmental Change: XRF Core Scan Data from the Turee Creek Drilling Project (TCDP), Hamersley and Turee Creek Groups, Western Australia. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Pereira A., Thomazo C, Vennin E, Buoncristiani JF, Van Kranendonk M, Philippot P, 24ième RST, Pau, october 2014.

    Philippot P, Van Zuilen M, Rollion-Bard C (2012), Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna, p 3644

    Philippot P, Van Zuilen M, Rollion-Bard-C (2012), Goldschmidt Conference, Montreal

    Philippot P, Teitler Y, Gerard M, Cartigny P, Muller E, Assayag N, LeHir G, Fluteau F (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p 76

    Philippot P, Van Kranendonk M, Thomazo, C., Muller E, Marin-Carbonne J, Lalonde S, Vennin E, Buonchristiani JF, Baton F, Caquineau T, Pereira A, Pecoits E, Planavsky N, Ader M, Isambert A, Bouquerel H, Busigny V, Carlut J, Cartigny P, Lepot K, 24ième RST, Pau, October 2014.

    Philippot P, Avila, J.N., Baton, F., Cartigny, P., Irealand, T.R., Muller, E., Rollion-Bard, C., Van Kranendonk, 2015. Multiple sulfur isotopes from the 2.45-2.2 Ga old Turee Creek Group and the rise of atmospheric oxygen, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Sforna MC, Philippot P, van Zuilen M, Somogyi A, Medjoubi K, Visscher PT & Dupraz C, (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p

    Sforna MC, Philippot P, Somogyi A, van Zuilen M, Medjoubi K, Schoepp-Cothenet B., Nitschke W., Visscher P. 2015. Arsenic metabolism and cycling in early Earth oceans. Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    Teitler Y., Philippot, P., Gerard M., Le Hir G., Fluteau F., Ader, M. , 2015. Direct evidence for significant oxygen in the Late Archean atmosphere from paleosols of the Fortescue Group, Western Australia, Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.

    van Zuilen M, Philippot P, Whitehouse M & Lepland A, (2013), Goldschmidt, Firenze, p

    Visscher, P., Farias, M., Contrapas, M., Novoa-Cortez, F., Rasuk, C., Patterson, Philippot, P., Sforna M., Gallagher, K., Dupraz, C., 2014. Geol. Soc. Amer. Abs. Vol., 1922, 2014


    News & Views

    Nature Geoscience, Sept. 2012, Unexpectedly abiotic, Bozwell Wing, 5, 598-599

    Nature Geoscience, Oct. 2014, Arsenic and Primordial Life, Tom Kulp, 7, 785–786


    Popular science and extension to the general public

    CNRS, International Magazine, April 2012, « The Origins of Life», 25, p 21-23

    La Recherche, October 2012, Des éruptions gigantesques sur la Terre Primitive, 468, 16-17.

    CNRS, Paris 9 aout 2012, De gigantesques panaches volcaniques ont recouvert la Terre à trois reprises entre 3,5 et 3,2 milliards d’années http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/terre-solide/origine-evolution-histoire/de-gigantesques-panaches-volcaniques-ont-recouvert-la-terre-

    CNRS, 26 October, 2014, Des micro-organismes métabolisaient l’arsenic dans des lacs salins il y a plus de 2,7 milliards d’années http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/5044

    Festival Pariscience, 7 october 2013, Invited conference after projection of the movie « Comment faire pousser une planète ? » Museum d’Histoire Naturelle.

    Exobiology school, Origin of life on Earth, Teich, 2014


    Conference and session organized

    P. Philippot, Chair of the theme “Early Earth – Earth’s history before the Phanerozoic” of the 2015 Goldschmidt Conference, Prague. (co-chair Y. Ueno, TIT and T. Rushmer, Macquarie University ; 6 sessions organized)

    N. Planavsky, D. Catling, K. Konhauser, Z. Lu, P. Philippot, convenors of the Session « Precambrian Redox Evolution » of the 2015 Goldschmidt Conference, Prague.


    Outcome not directly supported by Labex UnivEarths but connected to the project

    Peer Reviewed Articles.

    Marty, B., Zimmermann, L., Pujol, M., Burgess, R., Philippot, P., 2013. Nitrogen isotopic composition and partial pressure in the Archean atmosphere from analysis of pristine inclusion fluids. Science 342, 101-104.

    Pujol, M., Marty, B., Burgess, R., Turner, G., Philippot, P., 2013. Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics. Nature 498, 87-90.

    Le Hir, G., Teitler, Y., Fluteau, F., Donnadieu, Y., 2014. The faint young Sun problem revisited with a 3-D climate–carbon model – Part 1, Clim. Past 10, 697–713.


    News and Views

    CNRS, 6 juin 2013, L’essentiel de la croûte continentale formée entre 3,8 et 2,7 milliards d’années, http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/4391

    CNRS, 22 septembre 2013, L’atmosphère entre 3,8 et 2,4 milliards d’années, http://www.insu.cnrs.fr/node/4503

    Science Daily, 4 October 2013, Climate Puzzle Over Origins of Life On Earth, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131004090307.htm?utm_sour


    Popular Science

    La Recherche, December 2013 Des bulles d’eau révèlent l’atmosphère de la Terre primitive, 482, 8-9.